Subject: Renunciation and Renounced Order
संन्यासस्य महाबाहो तत्त्वमिच्छामि वेदितुम्।
त्यागस्य च हृषीकेश पृथक्केशिनिषूदन॥१८-१॥
saṁnyāsasya mahābāho tattvamicchāmi veditum|
tyāgasya ca hṛṣīkeśa pṛthakkeśiniṣūdana||18-1||
O Mighty-armed! O Hrishikesh! I wish to know severally, the essence of ‘Renunciation’ (Tyaga) and that of the ‘Renounced Order’ (Sannyasa), O Slayer of Kesi!
Lesson: Before establishing in the yoga of liberation one should know explicitly the essence or truth about renunciation and the renounced order of life.
Lord Krishna said:
Subject: Renunciation and Renounced Order
काम्यानां कर्मणां न्यासं संन्यासं कवयो विदुः।
सर्वकर्मफलत्यागं प्राहुस्त्यागं विचक्षणाः॥१८-२॥
kāmyānāṁ karmaṇāṁ nyāsaṁ saṁnyāsaṁ kavayo viduḥ|
sarvakarmaphalatyāgaṁ prāhustyāgaṁ vicakṣaṇāḥ||18-2||
Some wise understand `renounced order ` as the abandonment of desireful action; other thinkers say that the abandonment of the fruits of all action is `renunciation`.
त्याज्यं दोषवदित्येके कर्म प्राहुर्मनीषिणः।
यज्ञदानतपःकर्म न त्याज्यमिति चापरे॥१८-३॥
tyājyaṁ doṣavadityeke karma prāhurmanīṣiṇaḥ|
yajñadānatapaḥkarma na tyājyamiti cāpare||18-3||
Some sages say that all actions be abandoned as these contain evils, while other wise men say that acts of sacrifice, charity and austerity should not be abandoned.
Lesson: Opinions differ on renunciation and renounced order i.e.(1)Abandonment of desireful action is Renounced order,(2)Abandonment of the fruits of action is `Renunciation`,(3) Abandonment all actions is renunciation as all actions contain evils,(4) Renunciation does not include abandonment of acts like sacrifice, charity and austerity.
Subject: Description of Renunciation
निश्चयं शृणु मे तत्र त्यागे भरतसत्तम।
त्यागो हि पुरुषव्याघ्र त्रिविधः सम्प्रकीर्तितः॥१८-४॥
niścayaṁ śṛṇu me tatra tyāge bharatasattama|
tyāgo hi puruṣavyāghra trividhaḥ samprakīrtitaḥ||18-4||
Renunciation is said to be of three kinds (Sattwic, Rajasic, Tamasic), O Best of the Bharats! You listen My conclusive opinion about this renunciation, O Best of Men!
यज्ञदानतपःकर्म न त्याज्यं कार्यमेव तत्।
यज्ञो दानं तपश्चैव पावनानि मनीषिणाम्॥१८-५॥
yajñadānatapaḥkarma na tyājyaṁ kāryameva tat|
yajño dānaṁ tapaścaiva pāvanāni manīṣiṇām||18-5||
Acts of sacrifice, charity and austerity should not be abandoned. These should verily be performed because sacrifice, charity and austerity purify even the men of intellect.
एतान्यपि तु कर्माणि सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा फलानि च।
कर्तव्यानीति मे पार्थ निश्चितं मतमुत्तमम्॥१८-६॥
etānyapi tu karmāṇi saṅgaṁ tyaktvā phalāni ca|
kartavyānīti me pārtha niścitaṁ matamuttamam||18-6||
But, even these (sacrifice charity and austerity) and all other obligatory actions should be performed without attachment and without longing for fruits. This, O Partha, is My conclusive and best opinion.
Lesson: Never abandon sacrifice, charity and austerity. These three along with other obligatory acts should be done without attachment and without any desire for fruits.
Subject: Renunciation and Qualities
नियतस्य तु संन्यासः कर्मणो नोपपद्यते।
मोहात्तस्य परित्यागस्तामसः परिकीर्तितः॥१८-७॥
niyatasya tu saṁnyāsaḥ karmaṇo nopapadyate|
mohāttasya parityāgastāmasaḥ parikīrtitaḥ||18-7||
It is not proper to renounce obligatory action (prescribed duty). The abandonment of such actions, because of delusion, is said to be `Tamasic Renunciation`
दुःखमित्येव यत्कर्म कायक्लेशभयात्त्यजेत्।
स कृत्वा राजसं त्यागं नैव त्यागफलं लभेत्॥१८-८॥
duḥkhamityeva yatkarma kāyakleśabhayāttyajet|
sa kṛtvā rājasaṁ tyāgaṁ naiva tyāgaphalaṁ labhet||18-8||
He who renounces obligatory actions with the fear that the performance of duty causes pain and bodily trouble, though performing Rajasic Renunciation gets no fruit of `Renunciation`
कार्यमित्येव यत्कर्म नियतं क्रियतेऽर्जुन।
सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा फलं चैव स त्यागः सात्त्विको मतः॥१८-९॥
kāryamityeva yatkarma niyataṁ kriyate’rjuna|
saṅgaṁ tyaktvā phalaṁ caiva sa tyāgaḥ sāttviko mataḥ||18-9||
Whatever obligatory or prescribed act is performed as a duty, without attachment and with no longing for fruits, that alone is regarded as` Sattwic Renunciation`
Lesson: Abandonment of duty, due to delusion is Tamasic Renunciation. It is Rajasic when done for fear of pain or bodily trouble. Performance of all obligatory acts, without attachment and with no desire for fruits, is known as `Sattwic Renunciation`
Subject: The Renuncient (Tyaagi)
न द्वेष्ट्यकुशलं कर्म कुशले नानुषज्जते।
त्यागी सत्त्वसमाविष्टो मेधावी छिन्नसंशयः॥१८-१०॥
na dveṣṭyakuśalaṁ karma kuśale nānuṣajjate|
tyāgī sattvasamāviṣṭo medhāvī chinnasaṁśayaḥ||18-10||
He alone is renuncient who is imbibed with Sattwic qualities and wisdom; who neither hates inauspicious (disagreeable) acts, nor is he attached to auspicious (agreeable) one. Such a man is free from all doubts.
Lesson: The renuncient is one who is endowed with Sattwic qualities and intellect; who is unattached to auspicious act (acts prescribed by the scriptures);who does not hate the inauspioucious (disagreeable) acts; and who is free from all doubts and misgivings.
Subject: The Renuncient
न हि देहभृता शक्यं त्यक्तुं कर्माण्यशेषतः।
यस्तु कर्मफलत्यागी स त्यागीत्यभिधीयते॥१८-११॥
na hi dehabhṛtā śakyaṁ tyaktuṁ karmāṇyaśeṣataḥ|
yastu karmaphalatyāgī sa tyāgītyabhidhīyate||18-11||
It is not possible for any embodied- being to renounce all actions in their entirety. (Therefore) he alone is a renuncient who renounces the fruits of action.
Lesson: The renuncient is he who renounces the fruits of action.
Subject: Fruits of Action
अनिष्टमिष्टं मिश्रं च त्रिविधं कर्मणः फलम्।
भवत्यत्यागिनां प्रेत्य न तु संन्यासिनां क्वचित्॥१८-१२॥
aniṣṭamiṣṭaṁ miśraṁ ca trividhaṁ karmaṇaḥ phalam|
bhavatyatyāgināṁ pretya na tu saṁnyāsināṁ kvacit||18-12||
Those who do not renounce (the longing for fruits) get three-fold fruits of action, after (their) death: good, bad and the mixed one. But, the renuncient does not (he is not affected by the fruits of action).
Lesson: Those who perform desirefull action, after their death, are born in good, bad or mixed womb. The yogi of desire less action however, is free from the bondage of action. His good or bad results of action are destroyed (dissolved) in this life alone.
Subject: Cause of Action
पंचैतानि महाबाहो कारणानि निबोध मे।
साङ्ख्ये कृतान्ते प्रोक्तानि सिद्धये सर्वकर्मणाम्॥१८-१३॥
paṁcaitāni mahābāho kāraṇāni nibodha me|
sāṅkhye kṛtānte proktāni siddhaye sarvakarmaṇām||18-13||
Listen from Me, O Mighty-armed, the five causes of action described in the sankhya (scriptures or Upanishad).
अधिष्ठानं तथा कर्ता करणं च पृथग्विधम्।
विविधाश्च पृथक्चेष्टा दैवं चैवात्र पंचमम्॥१८-१४॥
adhiṣṭhānaṁ tathā kartā karaṇaṁ ca pṛthagvidham|
vividhāśca pṛthakceṣṭā daivaṁ caivātra paṁcamam||18-14||
The body (seat of all organs), the doer (ego), various organs of perceptions and action, various functions of organs of action(including intellect or knowledge) and the fifth is known to be the supreme deity( destiny or samskara)
शरीरवाङ्मनोभिर्यत्कर्म प्रारभते नरः।
न्याय्यं वा विपरीतं वा पंचैते तस्य हेतवः॥१८-१५॥
śarīravāṅmanobhiryatkarma prārabhate naraḥ|
nyāyyaṁ vā viparītaṁ vā paṁcaite tasya hetavaḥ||18-15||
These are the five contributory causes of whatever action, whether right or wrong, one performs with his body, mind and speech.
तत्रैवं सति कर्तारमात्मानं केवलं तु यः।
पश्यत्यकृतबुद्धित्वान्न स पश्यति दुर्मतिः॥१८-१६॥
tatraivaṁ sati kartāramātmānaṁ kevalaṁ tu yaḥ|
paśyatyakṛtabuddhitvānna sa paśyati durmatiḥ||18-16||
Notwithstanding this, he who regards the Absolute and Taintless- Self as the doer, because of his impure mind, that man of perverse understanding does not see the reality.
यस्य नाहंकृतो भावो बुद्धिर्यस्य न लिप्यते।
हत्वाऽपि स इमाँल्लोकान्न हन्ति न निबध्यते॥१८-१७॥
yasya nāhaṁkṛto bhāvo buddhiryasya na lipyate|
hatvā’pi sa imāllokānna hanti na nibadhyate||18-17||
Free from the sense of doership (egoism) whose mind is not absorbed in the worldly objects and activities (desire for fruits), even though he (as a warrior) slays all these people (his enemies), slays not; neither he is slayed, nor bonded (by his action)
Lesson: There are three kinds of action: physical, mental, vocal. These are because of: (a) body, (b) ego, (c) organs of action and perception, (d) functions of the organs of action and perception (inward and outward breath) (e) accumulated fruits of action of previous birth or destiny/sanskara Ignoring these causes, he who considers the Self-indwelling as the doer, fails to understand the reality or the truth. (The Self is taintless. He activates all the instruments of action but does not act on His own. They alone know this Truth-Absolute who are liberated from the sense of doership and who are detached from worldly objects.)
Subject: The Basis of Action
ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं परिज्ञाता त्रिविधा कर्मचोदना।
करणं कर्म कर्तेति त्रिविधः कर्मसंग्रहः॥१८-१८॥
jñānaṁ jñeyaṁ parijñātā trividhā karmacodanā|
karaṇaṁ karma karteti trividhaḥ karmasaṁgrahaḥ||18-18||
The Knower (The Subject), Knowledge (about the object or matter) and the Knowable (the objective of knowledge; (real form of the object) are the three factors that inspire for action. The doer, the organs (of perception and action) and the act constitute the three-fold basis of action.
Lesson: An action is accomplished by a collective team of a doer, the organs of perception and action and the activities of the organs. The motivation of action arises from the objective of action, the knowledge and the subject who acts.
Subject: Types of Knowledge, Action and Doer
ज्ञानं कर्म च कर्ताच त्रिधैव गुणभेदतः।
प्रोच्यते गुणसङ्ख्याने यथावच्छृणु तान्यपि॥१८-१९॥
jñānaṁ karma ca kartāca tridhaiva guṇabhedataḥ|
procyate guṇasaṅkhyāne yathāvacchṛṇu tānyapi||18-19||
Based on the three-fold constituent qualities, the knowledge, action and the doer have been described in the science of sankhya as of three kinds; that too (you) listen clearly.
Lesson: As per the science of Sankhya or the philosophy of Gunas (constituent qualities), the Knowledge, Action and Doer have been defined / described according to three –fold constituent qualities.
Subject: Sattwic, Rajasic and Tamasic Knowledge
सर्वभूतेषु येनैकं भावमव्ययमीक्षते।
अविभक्तं विभक्तेषु तज्ज्ञानं विद्धि सात्त्विकम्॥१८-२०॥
sarvabhūteṣu yenaikaṁ bhāvamavyayamīkṣate|
avibhaktaṁ vibhakteṣu tajjñānaṁ viddhi sāttvikam||18-20||
Know that knowledge to be Sattwic by which one perceives the Imperishable-One as undivided in all the divided beings.
पृथक्त्वेन तु यज्ज्ञानं नानाभावान्पृथग्विधान्।
वेत्ति सर्वेषु भूतेषु तज्ज्ञानं विद्धि राजसम्॥१८-२१॥
pṛthaktvena tu yajjñānaṁ nānābhāvānpṛthagvidhān|
vetti sarveṣu bhūteṣu tajjñānaṁ viddhi rājasam||18-21||
Know that knowledge to be Rajasic by which one perceives in all beings a variety of entities separate from each other.
यत्तु कृत्स्नवदेकस्मिन्कार्ये सक्तमहैतुकम्।
अतत्त्वार्थवदल्पं च तत्तामसमुदाहृतम्॥१८-२२॥
yattu kṛtsnavadekasminkārye saktamahaitukam|
atattvārthavadalpaṁ ca tattāmasamudāhṛtam||18-22||
And that trivial knowledge, devoid of reality and reason, is said to be Tamasic by which one perceives the gross (physical) body all in all and becomes attached to it.
Lesson: The Sattwic knowledge enables a man to perceive the Imperishable and Indivisible- One as undivided in all the divided- beings. (He beholds an underlying unity among all beings who are divided into various forms and figures, with an understanding that in all the diverse living beings One Indivisible Supreme-Being is manifested). With Rajasic knowledge, on the other hand, one perceives different beings as separate entities, different from each other while the person of Tamasic knowledge perceives his gross- body as all in all and remains attached to it.
Subject: Sattwic, Rajasic and Tamasic Action
नियतं सङ्गरहितमरागद्वेषतः कृतम्।
अफलप्रेप्सुना कर्म यत्तत्सात्त्विकमुच्यते॥१८-२३॥
niyataṁ saṅgarahitamarāgadveṣataḥ kṛtam|
aphalaprepsunā karma yattatsāttvikamucyate||18-23||
That obligatory action (action prescribed by the scriptures) is called Sattwic which is performed without any passion or aversion, without any attachment and without any desire for fruits.
यत्तु कामेप्सुना कर्म साहंकारेण वा पुनः।
क्रियते बहुलायासं तद्राजसमुदाहृतम्॥१८-२४॥
yattu kāmepsunā karma sāhaṁkāreṇa vā punaḥ|
kriyate bahulāyāsaṁ tadrājasamudāhṛtam||18-24||
That action is called Rajasic which is performed with great efforts by one who has longing for fruits and who is full of ego.
अनुबन्धं क्षयं हिंसामनपेक्ष्य च पौरुषम्।
मोहादारभ्यते कर्म यत्तत्तामसमुच्यते॥१८-२५॥
anubandhaṁ kṣayaṁ hiṁsāmanapekṣya ca pauruṣam|
mohādārabhyate karma yattattāmasamucyate||18-25||
The action done because of delusion without any regard for the consequence, loss, violence and ones own ability (to accomplish the job), is said to be Tamasic.
Lesson:: Sattwic action is performed without any passion, attachment and longing for fruits The Rajasics are done with tremendous efforts by egocentrics who have longing for fruits. But, actions performed out of sheer delusion without any regard for consequence, loss, violence and ones own ability are known as Tamasic.
Subject: Sattwic Doer
सिद्ध्यसिद्ध्योर्निर्विकारः कर्ता सात्त्विक उच्यते॥१८-२६॥
siddhyasiddhyornirvikāraḥ kartā sāttvika ucyate||18-26||
That doer is called Sattwic who is free from attachment and ego who is persevering, enthusiastic and unaffected by success and failure.
Lesson: Sattwic doer has five qualities (i) Unattachment, (ii)Non-egotism,(iii)Perseverance, (iv) Enthusiasm,(v) Unaffected by pleasure and pain of success and failure.
Subject: Rajasic Doer
रागी कर्मफलप्रेप्सुर्लुब्धो हिंसात्मकोऽशुचिः।
हर्षशोकान्वितः कर्ता राजसः परिकीर्तितः॥१८-२७॥
rāgī karmaphalaprepsurlubdho hiṁsātmako’śuciḥ|
harṣaśokānvitaḥ kartā rājasaḥ parikīrtitaḥ||18-27||
He said to be a Rajasic doer who is desirous of fruits-of-action, who is full of attachment, who is greedy, violent, and impure and who is absorbed in (sensual) pleasure and pain.
Lesson: Rajasic doer has six characteristics: (i) Longing for fruits of action, (ii) Full of attachment, (iii) Greed, (iv) Violence, (v) Impurity, (vi) Affected by pleasure and pain of success and failure.
Subject: Tamasic Doer
अयुक्तः प्राकृतः स्तब्धः शठो नैष्कृतिकोऽलसः।
विषादी दीर्घसूत्री च कर्ता तामस उच्यते॥१८-२८॥
ayuktaḥ prākṛtaḥ stabdhaḥ śaṭho naiṣkṛtiko’lasaḥ|
viṣādī dīrghasūtrī ca kartā tāmasa ucyate||18-28||
That doer is said to be Tamasic who lacks piety and self-control, who is unsteady, uneducated (uncultured), wicked, obstinate, malicious, lazy, despondent and procrastinating.
Lesson: Tamasic doer has nine characteristics: (i) Lack of pity and self-control, (ii) Unsteady, (iii) Uneducated, (iv) Wicked, (v) Obstinate, (vi) Malicious, (vii) Lazy, (viii)Despondent, (ix) Procrastinating
Subject: Three Kinds of Intellect and Perseverance
बुद्धेर्भेदं धृतेश्चैव गुणतस्त्रिविधं शृणु।
प्रोच्यमानमशेषेण पृथक्त्वेन धनंजय॥१८-२९॥
buddherbhedaṁ dhṛteścaiva guṇatastrividhaṁ śṛṇu|
procyamānamaśeṣeṇa pṛthaktvena dhanaṁjaya||18-29||
Because of the constituent qualities, the intellect or understanding and perseverance (fortitude) are also of three kinds. Listen, O Dhananjaya, which I am severally telling you.
Lesson: Because of three-fold constituent qualities, the intellect and perseverance are also of three kinds.
Subject: Sattwic Rajasic and Tamasic Intellect
प्रवृत्तिं च निवृत्तिं च कार्याकार्ये भयाभये।
बन्धं मोक्षं च या वेत्ति बुद्धिः सा पार्थ सात्त्विकी॥१८-३०॥
pravṛttiṁ ca nivṛttiṁ ca kāryākārye bhayābhaye|
bandhaṁ mokṣaṁ ca yā vetti buddhiḥ sā pārtha sāttvikī||18-30||
That intellect, O Partha, is Sattwic which knows the reality of action and renunciation of action (action and inaction); what ought to be done and what not; what is fear and fearlessness; and what is bondage and liberation.
यया धर्ममधर्मं च कार्यं चाकार्यमेव च।
अयथावत्प्रजानाति बुद्धिः सा पार्थ राजसी॥१८-३१॥
yayā dharmamadharmaṁ ca kāryaṁ cākāryameva ca|
ayathāvatprajānāti buddhiḥ sā pārtha rājasī||18-31||
That intellect is Rajasic, O Partha, by which one can not understand in reality Dharma and Adharma (Doable and Non-doable / Moral and Immoral) and also what ought to be done and what not.
अधर्मं धर्ममिति या मन्यते तमसावृता।
सर्वार्थान्विपरीतांश्च बुद्धिः सा पार्थ तामसी॥१८-३२॥
adharmaṁ dharmamiti yā manyate tamasāvṛtā|
sarvārthānviparītāṁśca buddhiḥ sā pārtha tāmasī||18-32||
Enveloped in Tamoguna (ignorance) that intellect is Tamasic,O Partha, which considers Adharma as Dharma and interprets all things in a perverted way.
Lesson: Sattwic intellect enables to discriminate between action and inaction, right and wrong action, fear and fearlessness, bondage and liberation. Rajasic, on the hand can not distinguish between Dharma and Adharma as well as right and wrong action while Tamasic interprets all the established norms and conventions in a perverted manner recognizing Adharma as Dharma.
Subject: Sattwic, Rajasic and Tamasic Perseverance or Determination
धृत्या यया धारयते मनःप्राणेन्द्रियक्रियाः।
योगेनाव्यभिचारिण्या धृतिः सा पार्थ सात्त्विकी॥१८-३३॥
dhṛtyā yayā dhārayate manaḥprāṇendriyakriyāḥ|
yogenāvyabhicāriṇyā dhṛtiḥ sā pārtha sāttvikī||18-33||
That unwavering resolve or determination (dhriti) is Sattwic, O Partha, by which one controls through Yoga the functions of the mind, the breath (prana/vital energy) and the senses.
यया तु धर्मकामार्थान्धृत्या धारयतेऽर्जुन।
प्रसङ्गेन फलाकाङ्क्षी धृतिः सा पार्थ राजसी॥१८-३४॥
yayā tu dharmakāmārthāndhṛtyā dhārayate’rjuna|
prasaṅgena phalākāṅkṣī dhṛtiḥ sā pārtha rājasī||18-34||
But, that determination is Rajasic, O Arjuna, by which one holds righteous duty (Dharma), wealth (Artha) and passion (Kama) with immense attachment, desiring fruits in return, O Partha!
यया स्वप्नं भयं शोकं विषादं मदमेव च।
न विमुंचति दुर्मेधा धृतिः सा पार्थ तामसी॥१८-३५॥
yayā svapnaṁ bhayaṁ śokaṁ viṣādaṁ madameva ca|
na vimuṁcati durmedhā dhṛtiḥ sā pārtha tāmasī||18-35||
That determination is Tamasic, O Partha, by which an evil minded person does not leave sleep and he does suffer from fear, grief, concern, despondency and even arrogance.
Lesson: Regulating the functions of mind, breath and senses for goodness through Yoga is Sattwic determination His determination is Rajasic who clings to Dharma, wealth and passion with attachment and longing for fruits of action. The evil minded person who does not give up sleep, fear, grief, concern, despondency and arrogance holds Tamasic determination.
Subject: Three-fold- Pleasure
सुखं त्विदानीं त्रिविधं शृणु मे भरतर्षभ।
अभ्यासाद्रमते यत्र दुःखान्तं च निगच्छति॥१८-३६॥
sukhaṁ tvidānīṁ trividhaṁ śṛṇu me bharatarṣabha|
abhyāsādramate yatra duḥkhāntaṁ ca nigacchati||18-36||
And now, O Best of Bharatas, listen from Me, the three-fold pleasure, in which by regular practice, one rejoices and attains an end to suffering/ pain;
Lesson: There are moments of joy and happiness in ones life which mitigate his suffering. These are of three kinds viz: Sattwic,Rajasic and Tamasic.
Subject: Sattiwic, Rajasic and Tamasic Pleasure
यत्तदग्रे विषमिव परिणामेऽमृतोपमम्।
तत्सुखं सात्त्विकं प्रोक्तमात्मबुद्धिप्रसादजम्॥१८-३७॥
yattadagre viṣamiva pariṇāme’mṛtopamam|
tatsukhaṁ sāttvikaṁ proktamātmabuddhiprasādajam||18-37||
Born of ones purity of intellect(Self-realization), that pleasure is said to be Sattwic which appears like poison in the beginning, but in the end, gives nectar like result;
परिणामे विषमिव तत्सुखं राजसं स्मृतम्॥१८-३८॥
pariṇāme viṣamiva tatsukhaṁ rājasaṁ smṛtam||18-38||
That pleasure which is drawn from the contact of the senses and their objects, gives nectar like results in the beginning but like poison at the end is said to be Rajasic;
यदग्रे चानुबन्धे च सुखं मोहनमात्मनः।
yadagre cānubandhe ca sukhaṁ mohanamātmanaḥ|
That pleasure which is derived from sleep, indolence and negligence and which deludes the Self, both at the beginning and at the end, is said to be Tamasic.
Lesson: The placidity of mind, borne of Self –realization is said to be Sattwic pleasure. It is difficult to attain but when achieved gives enduring nectarine delight, after a long sojourn of constant endevour /enterprise. The Rajasic pleasure is drawn from the contact of the senses and their objects. It is momentary and gives nectarine taste in the beginning while its end result is poisonous. The pleasure born of sleep, indolence and negligence which deludes the Self, from the beginning to end, is known as Tamasic .Its end result is delusive.
Subject: Universality of the Three-fold Qualities
न तदस्ति पृथिव्यां वा दिवि देवेषु वा पुनः।
सत्त्वं प्रकृतिजैर्मुक्तं यदेभिः स्यात्त्रिभिर्गुणैः॥१८-४०॥
na tadasti pṛthivyāṁ vā divi deveṣu vā punaḥ|
sattvaṁ prakṛtijairmuktaṁ yadebhiḥ syāttribhirguṇaiḥ||18-40||
There is no living entity on the earth or again among devas, in the heaven, who is free from the three- fold qualities, born of Nature (prakriti).
Lesson: All creatures and the entire world, including the world of perception and physical elements, are influenced by the three-fold constituent- qualities.
Subject: Four-fold Order of Social Living
ब्राह्मणक्षत्रियविशां शूद्राणां च परंतप।
कर्माणि प्रविभक्तानि स्वभावप्रभवैर्गुणैः॥१८-४१॥
brāhmaṇakṣatriyaviśāṁ śūdrāṇāṁ ca paraṁtapa|
karmāṇi pravibhaktāni svabhāvaprabhavairguṇaiḥ||18-41||
The duties of the Brahman, the Kshatrias and Vaisyas and also the Sudras, O Conqueror of the Enimies, have been divided according to their in-born qualities.
Lesson: In the four-fold order of social-living, duties of each class (Intellectuals, Leaders, Trade and Business Persons and Workers) have been allotted or distributed in accordance with its three-fold nature (psychological perspectives)
Subject: Duties of the Four-fold Social Order
शमो दमस्तपः शौचं क्षान्तिरार्जवमेव च।
ज्ञानं विज्ञानमास्तिक्यं ब्रह्मकर्म स्वभावजम्॥१८-४२॥
śamo damastapaḥ śaucaṁ kṣāntirārjavameva ca|
jñānaṁ vijñānamāstikyaṁ brahmakarma svabhāvajam||18-42||
Serenity, self-control, cleanliness, austerity, forgiveness, uprightness, faith-in-the Supreme-Being, knowledge (of scriptures) and wisdom (Realization of the Absolute) are the duties of Brahmanas, born of ( their ) nature;
शौर्यं तेजो धृतिर्दाक्ष्यं युद्धे चाप्यपलायनम्।
दानमीश्वरभावश्च क्षात्रं कर्म स्वभावजम्॥१८-४३॥
śauryaṁ tejo dhṛtirdākṣyaṁ yuddhe cāpyapalāyanam|
dānamīśvarabhāvaśca kṣātraṁ karma svabhāvajam||18-43||
Prowess and boldness, splendour, firmness, bravery, ingenuity, generosity, steadiness in battle, charity and leadership these are the duties of Kshatriyas, born of (their own) nature;
कृषिगौरक्ष्यवाणिज्यं वैश्यकर्म स्वभावजम्।
परिचर्यात्मकं कर्म शूद्रस्यापि स्वभावजम्॥१८-४४॥
kṛṣigaurakṣyavāṇijyaṁ vaiśyakarma svabhāvajam|
paricaryātmakaṁ karma śūdrasyāpi svabhāvajam||18-44||
Farming, rearing of cows and trade are the duties of Vaishyas born of their nature (and) the natural duty of the Sudras is to render service;
Lesson: Born of their own nature the duties of Brahmanas include: (i) serenity, (ii) self-control, (ii) cleanliness, (iv) austerity, (v) forgiveness, (vi) uprightness, (vii) faith-in-the Supreme-Being; (viii) knowledge of scriptures, (ix) wisdom or realization of the Absolute.
The duties of Kshatriysa include: (i) prowess and boldness, (ii) splendour, (iii) firmness, (iv) bravery, (v) ingenuity, (vi) generosity, (vii) steadiness in battle,(viii) charity,(ix) leadership. Farming, rearing of cows and trade are the duties of Vaishyas, born of their own nature while Sudras are to render service at work sites.
Subject: Perfection in Natural Duty
स्वे स्वे कर्मण्यभिरतः संसिद्धिं लभते नरः।
स्वकर्मनिरतः सिद्धिं यथा विन्दति तच्छृणु॥१८-४५॥
sve sve karmaṇyabhirataḥ saṁsiddhiṁ labhate naraḥ|
svakarmanirataḥ siddhiṁ yathā vindati tacchṛṇu||18-45||
One gets perfection in the work, when he performs his (own) duty, born of (his) nature (potential/ability). How he attains (highest) perfection by performing his own duty that you listen:
Lesson: One gets perfection in the work when he accomplishes his own obligatory jobs (duties) born of his nature (potential /ability) rather than attempting jobs prescribed for others.
Subject: In-born Duty and Perfection
यतः प्रवृत्तिर्भूतानां येन सर्वमिदं ततम्।
स्वकर्मणा तमभ्यर्च्य सिद्धिं विन्दति मानवः॥१८-४६॥
yataḥ pravṛttirbhūtānāṁ yena sarvamidaṁ tatam|
svakarmaṇā tamabhyarcya siddhiṁ vindati mānavaḥ||18-46||
One attains perfection, by worshipping “Him” (that Supreme-Being), through the accomplishment of his own (in-born) duty from Whom all beings have evolved; by Whom this (entire world) is pervaded.
Lesson: Performance of ones in-born duty is the worship of God. One should perform his own duty as an offering made to the Supreme-Being. (Work is Worship).
Subject: Obligatory Act / Work
श्रेयान्स्वधर्मो विगुणः परधर्मात्स्वनुष्ठितात्।
स्वभावनियतं कर्म कुर्वन्नाप्नोति किल्बिषम्॥१८-४७॥
śreyānsvadharmo viguṇaḥ paradharmātsvanuṣṭhitāt|
svabhāvaniyataṁ karma kurvannāpnoti kilbiṣam||18-47||
Performing ones own duty (Dharma) though devoid of merits, is better than the well- performed duty (dharma) of others. He who performs his prescribed duty (duty prescribed by scriptures in accordance with his in-born qualities) incurs no sin.
सहजं कर्म कौन्तेय सदोषमपि न त्यजेत्।
सर्वारम्भा हि दोषेण धूमेनाग्निरिवावृताः॥१८-४८॥
sahajaṁ karma kaunteya sadoṣamapi na tyajet|
sarvārambhā hi doṣeṇa dhūmenāgnirivāvṛtāḥ||18-48||
One should not abandon, O Son of Kunti, his innate duty though (it may be) inferior or full of evils. All actions are enveloped by one or the other evil, as fire by smoke.
Lesson: Instead of doing the work prescribed for others, accomplish your own duty, how-so-ever undignified or inferior it may be. There is no sin in performing ones innate duty.
Subject: Path of Knowledge or Renunciation
असक्तबुद्धिः सर्वत्र जितात्मा विगतस्पृहः।
नैष्कर्म्यसिद्धिं परमां संन्यासेनाधिगच्छति॥१८-४९॥
asaktabuddhiḥ sarvatra jitātmā vigataspṛhaḥ|
naiṣkarmyasiddhiṁ paramāṁ saṁnyāsenādhigacchati||18-49||
One whose intellect is free from attachment everywhere; who is desireless and who has subdued his Self, scales the supreme position of worklessness (liberation from the bondage of action) through the Yoga of Renunciation (Path of Knowledge).
Lesson: Treading the path of renunciation, he scales the highest state of worklessness (freedom from the bondage of action) who is unattached; has subdued his mind and the senses (through Yoga); and has no longing for fruits of action.
Subject: Essential Qualities of a Yogi
सिद्धिं प्राप्तो यथा ब्रह्म तथाप्नोति निबोध मे।
समासेनैव कौन्तेय निष्ठा ज्ञानस्य या परा॥१८-५०॥
siddhiṁ prāpto yathā brahma tathāpnoti nibodha me|
samāsenaiva kaunteya niṣṭhā jñānasya yā parā||18-50||
Know from Me, in brief, O Son of Kunti, how, having scaled the position of workless ness, one attains the Supreme Person (Brahman), the highest consummation of wisdom;
बुद्ध्या विशुद्धया युक्तो धृत्यात्मानं नियम्य च।
शब्दादीन्विषयांस्त्यक्त्वा रागद्वेषौ व्युदस्य च॥१८-५१॥
buddhyā viśuddhayā yukto dhṛtyātmānaṁ niyamya ca|
śabdādīnviṣayāṁstyaktvā rāgadveṣau vyudasya ca||18-51||
(Such a person is worthy of establishing unity with Brahman who) endowed with a pure intellect has controlled the self (subdued the mind) with firm determination (resolve), abandoned sound and other sense-objects as well as passion and aversion;
विविक्तसेवी लघ्वाशी यतवाक्कायमानसः।
ध्यानयोगपरो नित्यं वैराग्यं समुपाश्रितः॥१८-५२॥
viviktasevī laghvāśī yatavākkāyamānasaḥ|
dhyānayogaparo nityaṁ vairāgyaṁ samupāśritaḥ||18-52||
Living in solitude, (who is) abstemious (takes moderate food), has won over the body, mind and the voice (and) taking refuge in dispassion (who is) ever absorbed in meditation;
अहंकारं बलं दर्पं कामं क्रोधं परिग्रहम्।
विमुच्य निर्ममः शान्तो ब्रह्मभूयाय कल्पते॥१८-५३॥
ahaṁkāraṁ balaṁ darpaṁ kāmaṁ krodhaṁ parigraham|
vimucya nirmamaḥ śānto brahmabhūyāya kalpate||18-53||
Having given up egotism, power, arrogance, desire, anger, and feeling of meum (feeling of `mine` and `me` (as also) possession of material things and (whose) mind treads in tranquility;
Lesson: For Self-realization (the highest consummation of wisdom), a Yogi should have twelve qualities viz: (i) pure intellect,(ii) subdued senses, mind and intellect or self control,(iii) abandonment of sound and other sense objects,(iv) freedom from passion and aversion ,(v) life of solitude,(vi) abstemiousness,(vii) victory over the body, mind and the voice,(viii) ever absorbed in meditation,(ix) dispassion or detachment, (x) dispossession, (xi) freedom from egotism, power, arrogance, desire and anger, (xii) peaceful mind.
Subject: Supreme Devotion
ब्रह्मभूतः प्रसन्नात्मा न शोचति न काङ्क्षति।
समः सर्वेषु भूतेषु मद्भक्तिं लभते पराम्॥१८-५४॥
brahmabhūtaḥ prasannātmā na śocati na kāṅkṣati|
samaḥ sarveṣu bhūteṣu madbhaktiṁ labhate parām||18-54||
United with Brahaman, that Yogi (the serene one) neither grieves, nor desires. Giving equal treatment to all beings, he attains My supreme devotion (Para- Bhakti);
भक्त्या मामभिजानाति यावान्यश्चास्मि तत्त्वतः।
ततो मां तत्त्वतो ज्ञात्वा विशते तदनंतरम्॥१८-५५॥
bhaktyā māmabhijānāti yāvānyaścāsmi tattvataḥ|
tato māṁ tattvato jñātvā viśate tadanaṁtaram||18-55||
Through that supreme devotion, he comes to know Me, in essence, what I am and who I am .Knowing Me in essence, he enters into Me, forthwith.(He becomes united or merges with the Supreme-Being)
Lesson: Through devotion, one can truly understand the Supreme-Being (have true Self-realization). He gets the supreme devotion (devotional love) of the of the Supreme-Being who, endowed with aforementioned twelve qualities, is ever cheerful, does not grieve, nor desires, and gives equal treatment to all beings.
Subject: Yoga of Action and Devotion
सर्वकर्माण्यपि सदा कुर्वाणो मद्व्यपाश्रयः।
मत्प्रसादादवाप्नोति शाश्वतं पदमव्ययम्॥१८-५६॥
sarvakarmāṇyapi sadā kurvāṇo madvyapāśrayaḥ|
matprasādādavāpnoti śāśvataṁ padamavyayam||18-56||
(Even) he attains the Eternal and Imperishable (supreme) position by My grace who does all sorts of acts always taking refuge in Me (dedicating all actions to the Supreme-Being with loving devotion).
चेतसा सर्वकर्माणि मयि संन्यस्य मत्परः।
बुद्धियोगमुपाश्रित्य मच्चित्तः सततं भव॥१८-५७॥
cetasā sarvakarmāṇi mayi saṁnyasya matparaḥ|
buddhiyogamupāśritya maccittaḥ satataṁ bhava||18-57||
Mentally dedicating all actions to Me, as the supreme goal (of all actions) and practicing the Yoga of equanimity, ever fix your mind in Me.
मच्चित्तः सर्वदुर्गाणि मत्प्रसादात्तरिष्यसि।
अथ चेत्त्वमहंकारान्न श्रोष्यसि विनङ्क्ष्यसि॥१८-५८॥
maccittaḥ sarvadurgāṇi matprasādāttariṣyasi|
atha cettvamahaṁkārānna śroṣyasi vinaṅkṣyasi||18-58||
With your mind fixed in Me, you shall overcome all difficulties by My grace. And, if because of egotism, you will not listen (to Me), you shall perish.
Lesson: A Karam-Yogi (man-of-action )too attains the same highest position which a man of wisdom (Gyan-Yogi) achieves provided he: (i) does all sort of acts always taking refuge in the Supreme (thinking that every thing is done by the Supreme, man is just an instrument),(ii) dedicates all his acts to the Supreme,(iii)considers the Supreme as the highest goal for all his acts,(iv) practices yoga of equanimity (gives equal treatment to all beings/situations),(v) absorbs in the Supreme for ever,(vi) gives up egotism.
Subject: Action and Impressions of Action (Samskara)
यदहंकारमाश्रित्य न योत्स्य इति मन्यसे।
मिथ्यैष व्यवसायस्ते प्रकृतिस्त्वां नियोक्ष्यति॥१८-५९॥
yadahaṁkāramāśritya na yotsya iti manyase|
mithyaiṣa vyavasāyaste prakṛtistvāṁ niyokṣyati||18-59||
Propelled by egotism, your resolve, “I will not fight”, is false. (Because) your very nature (Nature of being Kshatriya) will compel you (to fight).
स्वभावजेन कौन्तेय निबद्धः स्वेन कर्मणा।
कर्तुं नेच्छसि यन्मोहात्करिष्यस्यवशोपि तत्॥१८-६०॥
svabhāvajena kaunteya nibaddhaḥ svena karmaṇā|
kartuṁ necchasi yanmohātkariṣyasyavaśopi tat||18-60||
You shall be doing helplessly, what you do not want to resort because of delusion. O Son of Kunti, you are bounded by your action (Karma), born of your karmic- nature or Samskara (impressions of the acts of previous birth).
Lesson: Every being is bound to work according to his in-born karmic nature (samskara)
Subject: The Supreme In-dwelling
ईश्वरः सर्वभूतानां हृद्देशेऽर्जुन तिष्ठति।
भ्रामयन्सर्वभूतानि यन्त्रारूढानि मायया॥१८-६१॥
īśvaraḥ sarvabhūtānāṁ hṛddeśe’rjuna tiṣṭhati|
bhrāmayansarvabhūtāni yantrārūḍhāni māyayā||18-61||
The Supreme-Being abides in the hearts (inner psyche) of all beings, O Arjuna! By His illusive power (Yog-maya), He causes all beings to revolve (work) as if (puppets) mounted on a machine (machine like physical body).
Lesson: The Supreme-Being exists in the hearts of all beings and by His power activates their machine like bodies to act helplessly like puppets revolved by a puppeteer. (The Self existing in the inner psyche of beings, activates the instruments of knowledge and action through mind and the intellect, to act helplessly, without their free-will)
Subject: Secret of Supreme Position
तमेव शरणं गच्छ सर्वभावेन भारत।
तत्प्रसादात्परां शान्तिं स्थानं प्राप्स्यसि शाश्वतम्॥१८-६२॥
tameva śaraṇaṁ gaccha sarvabhāvena bhārata|
tatprasādātparāṁ śāntiṁ sthānaṁ prāpsyasi śāśvatam||18-62||
Take refuge in Him (the Supreme-Being), with all your being, O Bharat! By His grace alone, you shall attain the Supreme Peace and the Eternal Abode/position (param dham).
इति ते ज्ञानमाख्यातं गुह्याद्गुह्यतरं मया।
विमृश्यैतदशेषेण यथेच्छसि तथा कुरु॥१८-६३॥
iti te jñānamākhyātaṁ guhyādguhyataraṁ mayā|
vimṛśyaitadaśeṣeṇa yathecchasi tathā kuru||18-63||
Thus, I have told you the wisdom which is the secret of all secrets. Having completely reflected upon it, now you act as you wish.
सर्वगुह्यतमं भूयः शृणु मे परमं वचः।
इष्टोऽसि मे दृढमिति ततो वक्ष्यामि ते हितम्॥१८-६४॥
sarvaguhyatamaṁ bhūyaḥ śṛṇu me paramaṁ vacaḥ|
iṣṭo’si me dṛḍhamiti tato vakṣyāmi te hitam||18-64||
Listen again to My most secret supreme word. As you are very dear to Me, I shall tell you this salutary (advice) for your benefit.
Lesson: Performing ones own duty, with devotion in the refuge of the Supreme-Being, is the secret of all successes. Considering all the pros and cons and taking in view much wider perspectives and all the cross cutting issues, one should utilize his own wisdom to decide whether or not to perform a particular task or act.
Subject: Devotion, Dedication and Surrender
मन्मना भव मद्भक्तो मद्याजी मां नमस्कुरु।
मामेवैष्यसि सत्यं ते प्रतिजाने प्रियोऽसि मे॥१८-६५॥
manmanā bhava madbhakto madyājī māṁ namaskuru|
māmevaiṣyasi satyaṁ te pratijāne priyo’si me||18-65||
Fix your mind upon Me, be devoted to Me, worship Me and bow down to Me. You shall then, certainly come to Me. Truly, I promise to you, (as) you are very dear to Me.
सर्वधर्मान् परित्यज्य मामेकं शरणं व्रज।
अहं त्वां सर्वपापेभ्यो मोक्ष्ययिष्यामि मा शुचः॥१८-६६॥
sarvadharmān parityajya māmekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja|
ahaṁ tvāṁ sarvapāpebhyo mokṣyayiṣyāmi mā śucaḥ||18-66||
Giving up all Dharmas (different thoughts, reasonings and dogmas), take refuge in Me alone. I shall absolve you of all sins. Do not grieve (worry).
Lesson: Leaving aside different thoughts and dogmas, a karam- yogi (Man of action), taking refuge in the Supreme-Being, should perform his duty (actions) with complete devotion, entirely dedicating them (actions) as offerings made to the Supreme.
Subject: Person Authorized to Share Knowledge
इदं ते नातपस्काय नाभक्ताय कदाचन।
न चाशुश्रूषवे वाच्यं न च मां योऽभ्यसूयति॥१८-६७॥
idaṁ te nātapaskāya nābhaktāya kadācana|
na cāśuśrūṣave vācyaṁ na ca māṁ yo’bhyasūyati||18-67||
Do not tell this secret, at any time, to one who is devoid of austerity or devotion, nor to one who is unwilling to listen, nor to one who is envious to Me.
Lesson: Knowledge should not be shared with those who lack: (i) austerity (ii) devotion (iii) willingness to listen (iv) appreciation for divine power.
Subject: Dissemination of Gita’s Message
य इदं परमं गुह्यं मद्भक्तेष्वभिधास्यति।
भक्तिं मयि परां कृत्वा मामेवैष्यत्यसंशयः॥१८-६८॥
ya idaṁ paramaṁ guhyaṁ madbhakteṣvabhidhāsyati|
bhaktiṁ mayi parāṁ kṛtvā māmevaiṣyatyasaṁśayaḥ||18-68||
He who will tell this highest secret (transcendental knowledge) to My devotees, with supreme devotion, shall undoubtedly come to Me.
न च तस्मान्मनुष्येषु कश्चिन्मे प्रियकृत्तमः।
भविता न च मे तस्मादन्यः प्रियतरो भुवि॥१८-६९॥
na ca tasmānmanuṣyeṣu kaścinme priyakṛttamaḥ|
bhavitā na ca me tasmādanyaḥ priyataro bhuvi||18-69||
There is none among men who does more dear (pleasing) service to Me than he, nor there shall be more dearer to Me, on the earth, other than him (who disseminates the message of Shrimad Bhagvad Gitas ).
अध्येष्यते च य इमं धर्म्यं संवादमावयोः।
ज्ञानयज्ञेन तेनाहमिष्टः स्यामिति मे मतिः॥१८-७०॥
adhyeṣyate ca ya imaṁ dharmyaṁ saṁvādamāvayoḥ|
jñānayajñena tenāhamiṣṭaḥ syāmiti me matiḥ||18-70||
Such is My conviction that I have been worshipped by him, through the sacrifice-of –wisdom (Gyan-yajna) who shall study our, this sacred dialogue.
श्रद्धावाननसूयश्च शृणुयादपि यो नरः।
सोऽपि मुक्तः शुभाँल्लोकान्प्राप्नुयात्पुण्यकर्मणाम्॥१८-७१॥
śraddhāvānanasūyaśca śṛṇuyādapi yo naraḥ|
so’pi muktaḥ śubhāllokānprāpnuyātpuṇyakarmaṇām||18-71||
Having liberated from all evils that man also shall attain the happy world of virtuous who just listens this with full faith and without any malice.
Lesson: The transcendental knowledge, envisioned in Shrimad Bhagvad Gita, is the genesis of Dharma Eternal. Its study, exposition, discourse or teaching is the sacred and highest service of the Supreme. Those engaged in spreading its message and also who receive the message with devotional love and faith shall establish unity with the Supreme. (The secrets of the cosmic realities and the Absolute One are revealed by a combination of wisdom, devotion and faith .Sharing of the transcendental knowledge is the highest devotional service to the Supreme-Being.)
Subject: Wisdom of Shrimad Bhagvad Gita
कच्चिदेतच्छ्रुतं पार्थ त्वयैकाग्रेण चेतसा।
कच्चिदज्ञानसंमोहः प्रनष्टस्ते धनंजय॥१८-७२॥
kaccidetacchrutaṁ pārtha tvayaikāgreṇa cetasā|
kaccidajñānasaṁmohaḥ pranaṣṭaste dhanaṁjaya||18-72||
O Partha, Did you hear this (My discourse), with full attention! Whether your delusion, born of ignorance, has been vanished, O Dhananjaya!
Lesson: The wisdom of Shrimad Bhagvad Gita removes delusion and doubts born of ignorance. The curious reader should make deeper exploration for better clarity of his doubts and misgivings.
Subject: Impact of Wisdom
नष्टो मोहः स्मृतिर्लब्धा त्वत्प्रसादान्मयाऽच्युत।
स्थितोऽस्मि गतसंदेहः करिष्ये वचनं तव॥१८-७३॥
naṣṭo mohaḥ smṛtirlabdhā tvatprasādānmayā’cyuta|
sthito’smi gatasaṁdehaḥ kariṣye vacanaṁ tava||18-73||
O Achuyat, by your grace (my) delusion has been vanished. I have regained memory (knowledge /my instable mind has become stable). Free from all doubts, I shall abide by your words.
Lesson: Knowledge removes delusion, born of ignorance. The instable mind becomes stable when delusions and doubts are removed. Knowledge, once gained, needs to be translated into practice.
इत्यहं वासुदेवस्य पार्थस्य च महात्मनः।
ityahaṁ vāsudevasya pārthasya ca mahātmanaḥ|
Thus, I have heard this miraculous and thrilling dialogue between Vasudeva and the great-souled, Arjuna.
योगं योगेश्वरात्कृष्णात्साक्षात्कथयतः स्वयम्॥१८-७५॥
yogaṁ yogeśvarātkṛṣṇātsākṣātkathayataḥ svayam||18-75||
By the grace of Vyasa, I have heard this supreme and most secret Yoga, directly from Shri Krishna, the Lord of Yoga, Himself describing it.
राजन्संस्मृत्य संस्मृत्य संवादमिममद्भुतम्।
केशवार्जुनयोः पुण्यं हृष्यामि च मुहुर्मुहुः॥१८-७६॥
rājansaṁsmṛtya saṁsmṛtya saṁvādamimamadbhutam|
keśavārjunayoḥ puṇyaṁ hṛṣyāmi ca muhurmuhuḥ||18-76||
Remembering this sacred and miraculous dialogue between Shri Krishna and Arjuna, O King, I rejoice again and again.
तच्च संस्मृत्य संस्मृत्य रूपमत्यद्भुतं हरेः।
विस्मयो मे महान्राजन्हृष्यामि च पुनः पुनः॥१८-७७॥
tacca saṁsmṛtya saṁsmṛtya rūpamatyadbhutaṁ hareḥ|
vismayo me mahānrājanhṛṣyāmi ca punaḥ punaḥ||18-77||
Remembering also again and again that most wonderful Form of Lord Krishna, O King, great is my wonder; and I am delighted again and again.
यत्र योगेश्वरः कृष्णो यत्र पार्थो धनुर्धरः।
तत्र श्रीर्विजयो भूतिर्ध्रुवा नीतिर्मतिर्मम॥१८-७८॥
yatra yogeśvaraḥ kṛṣṇo yatra pārtho dhanurdharaḥ|
tatra śrīrvijayo bhūtirdhruvā nītirmatirmama||18-78||
Wherever there is Krishna, the Lord of Yoga, wherever there is Partha, the great archer, there are lasting prosperity, victory, glory and righteousness. Such is my conviction.
Lesson: The dialogue between Lord Krishna and Arjuna, described in Shrimad Bhagvad Gita, is indeed very thrilling and exciting. One feels great pleasure in recollecting it again and again.
Enriched with the wonderful knowledge, envisioned in Shrimad Bhagvad Gita, only highly devoted Karma Yogi like Arjuna achieve lasting prosperity, victory, glory and righteousness by the grace of Lord, the Supreme-Being.