पञ्चदशोऽध्यायः—पुरुषोत्तम योगः

श्रीभगवानुवाच।
śrībhagavānuvāca|
Lord Krishna said:
Subject: Tree of Life ( The Cosmic World)
ऊर्ध्वमूलमधःशाखमश्वत्थं प्राहुरव्ययम्।
छन्दांसि यस्य पर्णानि यस्तं वेद स वेदवित्॥१५-१॥
ūrdhvamūlamadhaḥśākhamaśvatthaṁ prāhuravyayam|
chandāṁsi yasya parṇāni yastaṁ veda sa vedavit||15-1||
Meaning: He knows Vedas (he is wise), who knows that the Asvatha (banyan tree) is said to be imperishable. It has its roots upwards (originated from the Supreme), its branches downwards (gets sustenance from the material world) and its leaves are Vedic hymns (senses which are the means of knowledge)
अधश्चोर्ध्वं प्रसृतास्तस्य शाखा
गुणप्रवृद्धा विषयप्रवालाः।
अधश्च मूलान्यनुसंततानि
कर्मानुबन्धीनि मनुष्यलोके॥१५-२॥
adhaścordhvaṁ prasṛtāstasya śākhā
guṇapravṛddhā viṣayapravālāḥ|
adhaśca mūlānyanusaṁtatāni
karmānubandhīni manuṣyaloke||15-2||
Meaning: In the form of sense-objects, its branches of tender leaves are spread downwards. These are nourished by the three-fold-constituent-qualities. Spreading downwards are its secondary roots of passion and desires which inspire all beings to perform action and thus bind them with the bondage of furitive action.
Lesson: The Supreme-Self is the basic energy of the physical body, born of Nature.( The Supreme Being is the cause of Nature and the Nature is the cause of this ever changing cosmic world which is like a banyan tree, having roots upward and branches downwards.  Originating from the Supreme, the Self-indwelling gets direct nourishment from the Supreme through Its roots upwards, and material substance (for worldly action) from the nature, through Its branches downwards. Its senses (tender leaves) get stimuli from the consciousness-the Self-within.  Only the wise men understand this cosmic relationship).

Subject: The Real Form of the Cosmic World (Tree)
न रूपमस्येह तथोपलभ्यते
नान्तो न चादिर्न च संप्रतिष्ठा।
अश्वत्थमेनं सुविरूढमूलं
असङ्गशस्त्रेण दृढेन छित्त्वा॥१५-३॥
na rūpamasyeha tathopalabhyate
nānto na cādirna ca saṁpratiṣṭhā|
aśvatthamenaṁ suvirūḍhamūlaṁ
asaṅgaśastreṇa dṛḍhena chittvā||15-3||
Meaning: Its (real) form is not perceived here (in this world), neither its end, nor its beginning, nor its foundation (existence).Having cut this firm rooted Aswattha-tree with the strong axe of detachment (vairagya=renunciation);
ततः पदं तत्परिमार्गितव्यं
यस्मिन्गता न निवर्तन्ति भूयः।
तमेव चाद्यं पुरुषं प्रपद्ये।
यतः प्रवृत्तिः प्रसृता पुराणी॥१५-४॥
tataḥ padaṁ tatparimārgitavyaṁ
yasmingatā na nivartanti bhūyaḥ|
tameva cādyaṁ puruṣaṁ prapadye|
yataḥ pravṛttiḥ prasṛtā purāṇī||15-4||
Meaning:  That goal should be sought after, having reached there, none returns again (thinking ) ?I am taking refuge in that primeval person (Aadi Purusha) from whom every thing (all actions/ energy) originated and extended, since time immemorial?.
Lesson: Detached from the material world try to understand the cosmic life: its beginning, existence and dissolution. To know the source of all creation /energy is the supreme goal of life. (Rising above the senses, mind and the intellect, one enters into the world of the supreme-consciousness, totally detached from the material world; never to come back.)

Subject: Path to Supreme Position
निर्मानमोहा जितसङ्गदोषा
अध्यात्मनित्या विनिवृत्तकामाः।
द्वन्द्वैर्विमुक्ताः सुखदुःखसंज्ञैः
गच्छन्त्यमूढाः पदमव्ययं तत्॥१५-५॥
nirmānamohā jitasaṅgadoṣā
adhyātmanityā vinivṛttakāmāḥ|
dvandvairvimuktāḥ sukhaduḥkhasaṁjñaiḥ
gacchantyamūḍhāḥ padamavyayaṁ tat||15-5||
Meaning: Those wise persons attain imperishable- supreme position (of consciousness or supreme- goal) who are free from pride and delusion; have overcome attachment to evils; who are ever established in the Self completely stilled and who are free  from desires and dualities of pleasure and pain.
Lesson: The path to supreme position or to the state of supreme consciousness comprises: (i) liberation from pride and delusion;(ii) victory over the evils of attachment;(iii) persistent meditation upon the self;(iv)liberation from all desires;(v)freedom from the dualities of pleasure and pain (v) steadfastness.

Subject: Supreme Abode
न तद्भासयते सूर्यो न शशाङ्को न पावकः।
यद्गत्वा न निवर्तंते तद्धाम परमं मम॥१५-६॥
na tadbhāsayate sūryo na śaśāṅko na pāvakaḥ|
yadgatvā na nivartaṁte taddhāma paramaṁ mama||15-6||
Meaning: That My Supreme abode is neither illumined by the sun, nor the by the moon, nor fire. Having reached there one does not come back.
Lesson: Strive to attain the glorious state of supreme consciousness illumined by the eternal radiance of the Supreme-Being, not by the external objects like the  sun, moon and fire.

Subject: Self-Embodied
ममैवांशो जीवलोके जीवभूतः सनातनः।
मनःषष्ठानीन्द्रियाणि प्रकृतिस्थानि कर्षति॥१५-७॥
mamaivāṁśo jīvaloke jīvabhūtaḥ sanātanaḥ|
manaḥṣaṣṭhānīndriyāṇi prakṛtisthāni karṣati||15-7||
Meaning: The Self-embodied is indeed My Eternal fragment. Being attached to nature (physical elements/ body), it is called Jeevaatma (live spirit or Self-embodied). Conditioned by the three-fold-constituent – qualities, It (Jeevaatma) struggles with senses, including mind, the sixth.
Lesson: The physical body is a fragment of the physical world (Nature) while the imperishable Self-indwelling is a fraction of the Supreme ?Self. Conditioned by the triple constituent qualities, it vibrates the senses and the mind to act.

Subject: Nature of the Self-indwelling
शरीरं यदवाप्नोति यच्चाप्युत्क्रामतीश्वरः।
गृहित्वैतानि संयाति वायुर्गंधानिवाशयात्॥१५-८॥
śarīraṁ yadavāpnoti yaccāpyutkrāmatīśvaraḥ|
gṛhitvaitāni saṁyāti vāyurgaṁdhānivāśayāt||15-8||
Meaning: The Lord of the body (the Self-indwelling), while leaving the body (at the time of death) as also while entering into the new body (which it gets after death), takes away the senses, including the mind, as the air picks up the aroma from its source.
Lesson:  The Self-indwelling, while leaving the body at the time of death and entering into a new one, takes along with It the subtle body comprising of senses, mind and the intellect.

Subject: Functions of the Self-indwelling
श्रोत्रं चक्षुः स्पर्शनं च रसनं घ्राणमेव च।
अधिष्ठाय मनश्चायं विषयानुपसेवते॥१५-९॥
śrotraṁ cakṣuḥ sparśanaṁ ca rasanaṁ ghrāṇameva ca|
adhiṣṭhāya manaścāyaṁ viṣayānupasevate||15-9||
Meaning: Presiding over the mind, He (the Self-embodied) enjoys the sense- objects through the senses like ear, eyes, nose, tongue and skin.
Lesson: Presiding over the mind the Self-embodied enjoys the sense objects through the senses.

Subject: Form of the Self and Self-realization
उत्क्रामन्तं स्थितं वाऽपि भुंजानं वा गुणान्वितम्।
विमूढा नानुपश्यन्ति पश्यन्ति ज्ञानचक्षुषः॥१५-१०॥
utkrāmantaṁ sthitaṁ vā’pi bhuṁjānaṁ vā guṇānvitam|
vimūḍhā nānupaśyanti paśyanti jñānacakṣuṣaḥ||15-10||
Meaning: But for ignorant, those who have the eye of knowledge alone can see Him (the Self-indwelling) when He exists in the body or when He leaves the body or when, influenced by the constituent qualities, He enjoys the  sense objects.
यतन्तो योगिनश्चैनं पश्यन्त्यात्मन्यवस्थितम्।
यतन्तोऽप्यकृतात्मानो नैनं पश्यंत्यचेतसः॥१५-११॥
yatanto yoginaścainaṁ paśyantyātmanyavasthitam|
yatanto’pyakṛtātmāno nainaṁ paśyaṁtyacetasaḥ||15-11||
Meaning: The Yogis striving for perfection could behold Him (the Self-indwelling) with immense efforts. The unwise whose hearts are impure, even though striving hard, can not perceive Him.
Lesson: The Self-indwelling has three functions viz:(a)Preside over the mind and enjoy the sense- objects;(b)Leave the body;(c) Enter into a new body.
But for the pure-hearted wise persons, none can see these functions, even if they strive to do so.

Subject: Glory of the Supreme-Being
यदादित्यगतं तेजो जगद्भासयतेऽखिलम्।
यच्चन्द्रमसि यच्चाग्नौ तत्तेजो विद्धि मामकम्॥१५-१२॥
yadādityagataṁ tejo jagadbhāsayate’khilam|
yaccandramasi yaccāgnau tattejo viddhi māmakam||15-12||
Meaning: Know that splendour to be Mine which comes from the sun and illumines the entire world; and that which is in the moon and in the fire.
Lesson: The Supreme-Being is the supreme cluster of all pervading   light. All the equipment of the light like the sun, moon and the fire shine and reflect only His radiance. (The Self-indwelling, a fraction of the Supreme-Being [the Supreme ?Light-Form] shines the entire physical body. All the instruments of knowledge and wisdom [the senses, mind and the intellect] vibrate and reflect His light as the sun, moon and the fire reflect the radiance of the Supreme-Being).

Subject: Splendour of the Supreme-Being
गामाविश्य च भूतानि धारयाम्यहमोजसा।
पुष्णामि चौषधीः सर्वाः सोमो भूत्वा रसात्मकः॥१५-१३॥
gāmāviśya ca bhūtāni dhārayāmyahamojasā|
puṣṇāmi cauṣadhīḥ sarvāḥ somo bhūtvā rasātmakaḥ||15-13||
Meaning: And entering the earth, it is Me who sustains all beings by My power/energy. Becoming the sap-giving moon, I nourish all the herbs.
अहं वैश्वानरो भूत्वा प्राणिनां देहमाश्रितः।
प्राणापानसमायुक्तः पचाम्यन्नं चतुर्विधम्॥१५-१४॥
ahaṁ vaiśvānaro bhūtvā prāṇināṁ dehamāśritaḥ|
prāṇāpānasamāyuktaḥ pacāmyannaṁ caturvidham||15-14||
Meaning: Becoming the Vaisvanarh (digestive fire) I dwell in the body of all beings. I join the incoming and out going air to digest the four- fold- food.
Lesson: The Supreme-Being is the basis of the earth which sustains and nourishes all beings movable and non-movable. The sun, moon and the fire are the source of cosmic energy which gives the earth fertility and life-sustaining potential?an expression of the splendour and grandeur of the Supreme-Being.

Subject: The Self-within
सर्वस्य चाहं हृदि सन्निविष्टो
मत्तः स्मृतिर्ज्ञानमपोहनंच।
वेदैश्च सर्वैरहमेव वेद्यो
वेदान्तकृद्वेदविदेव चाहम्॥१५-१५॥
sarvasya cāhaṁ hṛdi sanniviṣṭo
mattaḥ smṛtirjñānamapohanaṁca|
vedaiśca sarvairahameva vedyo
vedāntakṛdvedavideva cāham||15-15||
Meaning: And I am established in the hearts of all. Memory, wisdom and ratiocination also originate from Me. I am the one to be known in all the Vedas; I am the knower of the Vedas and I am the author of the Vedanta.
Lesson: The Self-indwelling is established, as consciousness, in the inner psyche of all beings. It is the basis of their vitality as also their knowledge and wisdom. All faculties of  intellect whether memory or ratiocination or even the knowledge originate from the Self-indwelling. (Knowledge originates from within, not beyond. It is enveloped by ignorance. The eternal light of the Self-within enlightens the intellect with the radiance of knowledge).

Subject: Perishable and Imperishable
द्वाविमौ पुरुषौ लोके क्षरश्चाक्षर एव च।
क्षरः सर्वाणि भूतानि कूटस्थोऽक्षर उच्यते॥१५-१६॥
dvāvimau puruṣau loke kṣaraścākṣara eva ca|
kṣaraḥ sarvāṇi bhūtāni kūṭastho’kṣara ucyate||15-16||
Meaning: There are two kinds of entities (Purusha) in this world?the perishable and imperishable (Kshar and Akshar). All the entities in the material world (physical body) are perishable; the Kutashthah is called the Imperishable.

Subject: Superior Person (Purushotama)
उत्तमः पुरुषस्त्वन्यः परमात्मेत्युधाहृतः।
यो लोकत्रयमाविश्य बिभर्त्यव्यय ईश्वरः॥१५-१७॥
uttamaḥ puruṣastvanyaḥ paramātmetyudhāhṛtaḥ|
yo lokatrayamāviśya bibhartyavyaya īśvaraḥ||15-17||
Meaning: The best, however, is someone else, known to be the Absolute-Being. By pervading the three worlds,   that Eternal Lord sustains all (Beings).
यस्मात्क्षरमतीतोऽहमक्षरादपि चोत्तमः।
अतोऽस्मि लोके वेदेच प्रथितः पुरुषोत्तमः॥१५-१८॥
yasmātkṣaramatīto’hamakṣarādapi cottamaḥ|
ato’smi loke vedeca prathitaḥ puruṣottamaḥ||15-18||
Meaning: As I am beyond the perishable and I am even superior to Imperishable, I am known to be the Supreme Person (Purushotama) in the world and in the Vedas.
Lesson: All entities in the material world are perishable (changeable).The Self-within alone is unchangeable like an anvil. In spite of Its repeated transmission from one to another body, the Self-within remains unchanged, as despite repeated hammering the anvil remains unchanged.(Anvil is an ironblock upon which smiths place red-hot-iron bits and hammer them to grt required shape of weapons or ornaments. Despite repeated hammering the iron-block remains as it is without any change; only the iron-pits undergo change. The Supreme-Being is superior to all. He is beyond the perishable (changeable) physical elements (world) as also the Imperishable. Being beyond the physical world and superior to all, the Supreme-Being is known as Superior- Person (purushotam) .He nourishes and sustains all the three worlds-the realms of sleep, dream and waking as also remains aloof, both from Perishable and Imperishable.

Subject: The Supreme Person
यो मामेवमसंमूढो जानातिपुरुषोत्तमम्।
स सर्वविद्भजति मां सर्वभावेन भारत॥१५-१९॥
yo māmevamasaṁmūḍho jānātipuruṣottamam|
sa sarvavidbhajati māṁ sarvabhāvena bhārata||15-19||
Meaning: Thus, O Bharat, the undeluded wise who truly knows Me as the Supreme- Being, knows every thing and worships Me, whole heartedly.
इति गुह्यतमं शास्त्रमिदमुक्तं मयाऽनघ।
एतत्बुद्ध्वा बुद्धिमान्स्यात्कृतकृत्यश्च भारत॥१५-२०॥
iti guhyatamaṁ śāstramidamuktaṁ mayā’nagha|
etatbuddhvā buddhimānsyātkṛtakṛtyaśca bhārata||15-20||
Meaning: Thus, O Sinless Bharat, I have explained this most secret transcendental science of the Absolute. Having understood this, one becomes enlightened; all his endeavours get perfection, O Arjuna!
Lesson On acquiring true knowledge of the physical world and the Infinite consciousness, one takes refuge in the Supreme-Being. His mind tends to move towards the Self-within. His intellect (devotion) is absorbed in the Supreme with the realization that the Supreme alone is superior. This is the most secret transcendental knowledge, after knowing which nothing remains to be known and ones all endeavours get perfection; nothing is left to be done.
Lesson On acquiring true knowledge of the physical world and the Infinite consciousness, one takes refuge in the Supreme-Being. His mind tends to move towards the Self-within. His intellect (devotion) is absorbed in the Supreme with the realization that the Supreme alone is superior. This is the most secret transcendental knowledge, after knowing which nothing remains to be known and ones all endeavours get perfection; nothing is left to be done.

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