Lord Krishna said:
Subject: Highest Knowledge
परं भूयः प्रवक्ष्यामि ज्ञानानां ज्ञानमुत्तमम्।
यज्ज्ञात्वा मुनयः सर्वे परां सिद्धिमितो गताः॥१४-१॥
paraṁ bhūyaḥ pravakṣyāmi jñānānāṁ jñānamuttamam|
yajjñātvā munayaḥ sarve parāṁ siddhimito gatāḥ||14-1||
I will again explain (to you) that Supreme Knowledge, the best of all knowledges, having acquired which all sages, after passing through this world, have attained perfection.
इदं ज्ञानमुपाश्रित्य मम साधर्म्यमागताः।
सर्गेऽपि नोपजायन्ते प्रलये न व्यथन्ति च॥१४-२॥
idaṁ jñānamupāśritya mama sādharmyamāgatāḥ|
sarge’pi nopajāyante pralaye na vyathanti ca||14-2||
By taking refuge in this Knowledge, those who attain My Being, are neither born at the time of creation, nor are they destroyed at the time of dissolution.
Lesson: One should strive to get that highest knowledge which liberates him from his limited sense of individuality, gets him into the likeness of the Absolute, having liberated from the cycles of birth and death.
Subject: Birth of All Beings
मम योनिर्महद् ब्रह्म तस्मिन्गर्भं दधाम्यहम्।
संभवः सर्वभूतानां ततो भवति भारत॥१४-३॥
mama yonirmahad brahma tasmingarbhaṁ dadhāmyaham|
saṁbhavaḥ sarvabhūtānāṁ tato bhavati bhārata||14-3||
The Great (mahat ) Brahman (Nature / Physical World) is My womb. I place in that the seed (of consciousness) from which, O Bharat, all beings are born.
सर्वयोनिषु कौन्तेय मूर्तयः संभवन्ति याः।
तासां ब्रह्म महद्योनिरहं बीजप्रदः पिता॥१४-४॥
sarvayoniṣu kaunteya mūrtayaḥ saṁbhavanti yāḥ|
tāsāṁ brahma mahadyonirahaṁ bījapradaḥ pitā||14-4||
Whatever forms are born from all the different wombs, O Son of Kunti, the great Brahman is their womb and I am the Seed-giving- Father.
Lesson: All beings are born from the union of matter Consciousness. The Nature (physical world) is like Mother and the Supreme- Self, like the Father, who puts the seed of consciousness in the womb of Mother- Nature. (In the world of perception, the senses, mind and the intellect are activated by the Self-indwelling. All perceptions are born of mind and intellect with the seed sown by the Self-within).
Subject: Bondage of Three-fold Qualities
सत्त्वं रजस्तम इति गुणाः प्रकृतिसम्भवाः।
निबध्नन्ति महाबाहो देहे देहिनमव्ययम्॥१४-५॥
sattvaṁ rajastama iti guṇāḥ prakṛtisambhavāḥ|
nibadhnanti mahābāho dehe dehinamavyayam||14-5||
O Mighty- Armed, in this body, three-fold qualities, born of Nature (Sat=Goodness, Raj=Passion, Tam=Inertia), bind down the Imperishable Self-Embodied.
Lesson: Rise above the constituent qualities to get freedom from the worldly bondages. (When the Self-indwelling identifies Itself with the three constituent qualities, It forgets Its Eternity and utilizes the mortal being for ego-centric satisfaction resulting into bindings with various worldly attachments. One should strive to rise above the triple qualities).
Subject: Impact of Constituent- Qualities (Sattwa)
तत्र सत्त्वं निर्मलत्वात्प्रकाशकमनामयम्।
सुखसङ्गेन बध्नाति ज्ञानसङ्गेन चानघ॥१४-६॥
tatra sattvaṁ nirmalatvātprakāśakamanāmayam|
sukhasaṅgena badhnāti jñānasaṅgena cānagha||14-6||
Of these (three qualities), Sattwa (Goodness)
being pure, is luminous and free from evils. O Sinless One,
it binds by attachment to happiness and knowledge.
Lesson: Sattwa (Goodness) invokes intellect, stimulates pure thoughts and gives inner happiness. Still it binds the Self through attachment to knowledge and happiness.
Subject: Impact of Constituent -Qualities (Rajas)
रजो रागात्मकं विद्धि तृष्णासङ्गसमुद्भवम्।
तन्निबध्नाति कौन्तेय कर्मसङ्गेन देहिनम्॥१४-७॥
rajo rāgātmakaṁ viddhi tṛṣṇāsaṅgasamudbhavam|
tannibadhnāti kaunteya karmasaṅgena dehinam||14-7||
O Son of Kunti, know that Rajas (Passion) is born of desires and longings. It binds the embodied-being by attachment to action.
Lesson: Generating desires and longings, the Rajas (Passion) inspires for worldly actions (desirefull or selfish deeds). The Self-indwelling, though a non-doer, is bounded by Rajas, through attachment to action and its fruits, to the egoistic satisfaction of doing work
Subject: Impact of Constituent Qualities (Tamas)
तमस्त्वज्ञानजं विद्धि मोहनं सर्वदेहिनाम्।
tamastvajñānajaṁ viddhi mohanaṁ sarvadehinām|
And know that Tamas (Inertia) deluding all embodied beings, is born of ignorance. It binds, O Bharat, by negligence, indolence and sleep.
सत्त्वं सुखे संजयति रजः कर्मणि भारत।
ज्ञानमावृत्य तु तमः प्रमादे संजयत्युत॥१४-९॥
sattvaṁ sukhe saṁjayati rajaḥ karmaṇi bhārata|
jñānamāvṛtya tu tamaḥ pramāde saṁjayatyuta||14-9||
(Thus) Sattwa attaches to happiness, Rajas to action and Tamas, O Bharat, attaches to negligence which envelops knowledge.
Lesson: Tamas (Inertia) increases negligence, indolence and sleep towards noble deeds, with heightened desire to evil action. Enveloped with misconceptions and ignorance the Self-indwelling sleeps in total submission to the material objects (gross body), unable to discriminate between the right and wrong.
Strive to rise above the three-fold- constituent qualities as these are the root cause of all attachments.
Subject: Predominance of the Qualities
रजस्तमश्चाभिभूय सत्त्वं भवति भारत।
रजः सत्त्वं तमश्चैव तमः सत्त्वं रजस्तथा॥१४-१०॥
rajastamaścābhibhūya sattvaṁ bhavati bhārata|
rajaḥ sattvaṁ tamaścaiva tamaḥ sattvaṁ rajastathā||14-10||
Sattwa prevails by overpowering Rajas and Tamas, while Rajas rises by overpowering Sattwa
and Tamas.Likewise, O Bharat, Tamas prevails by overpowering Sattwa and Rajas.
Lesson: All the three qualities are found, in lesser or higher degree, in all beings. When one quality prevails, it overpowers the remaining two to play a secondary role or become dormant.
(The senses, known as the gates and windows of the body, act in accordance with the consciousness (knowledge, perceptions/thoughts) received from the mind and the intellect. The triple qualities lay great impact on this consciousness).
Subject: Predominance of Sattwa
सर्वद्वारेषु देहेऽस्मिन्प्रकाश उपजायते।
ज्ञानं यदा तदा विद्याद्विवृद्धं सत्त्वमित्युत॥१४-११॥
sarvadvāreṣu dehe’sminprakāśa upajāyate|
jñānaṁ yadā tadā vidyādvivṛddhaṁ sattvamityuta||14-11||
When the light of knowledge illumines through every gate of this body, it may be known that Sattwa is predominant.
Lesson: Pure and sacred wisdom (clean and shinning light-of-wisdom) is reflected when Sattwa predominates or prevails. It enables the senses to know and comprehend the world-of-objects in right perspectives and perform noble deeds.
Subject: Predominance of Rajas
लोभः प्रवृत्तिरारम्भः कर्मणामशमः स्पृहा।
रजस्येतानि जायन्ते विवृद्धे भरतर्षभ॥१४-१२॥
lobhaḥ pravṛttirārambhaḥ karmaṇāmaśamaḥ spṛhā|
rajasyetāni jāyante vivṛddhe bharatarṣabha||14-12||
With the rise of Rajas, O Best of the Bharat Dynasty, greed, activity, initiative, unrest and longing arise,
Lesson: With the rise of Rajas , the mind reflects such perceptions and thoughts which lead to selfish- deeds, desire full actions and greed resulting into restless.
Subject: Predominance of Tamas
अप्रकाशोऽप्रवृत्तिश्च प्रमादो मोह एव च।
तमस्येतानि जायन्ते विवृद्धे कुरुनन्दन॥१४-१३॥
aprakāśo’pravṛttiśca pramādo moha eva ca|
tamasyetāni jāyante vivṛddhe kurunandana||14-13||
When Tamas is predominant, O Descendent-of-Kuru, darkness, inertness, negligence and delusion arise.
Lesson: When Tamas increases, the mind becomes incapable to discriminate and the senses are trapped in negligence, delusion, inertness and inaction.
Subject: Rebirth and the Qualities
यदा सत्त्वे प्रवृद्धे तु प्रलयं याति देहभृत्।
yadā sattve pravṛddhe tu pralayaṁ yāti dehabhṛt|
When one dies during the prominence of Sattwa, he (the Self-embodied) goes to the clean worlds of the knowers of the Supreme.
रजसि प्रलयं गत्वा कर्मसङ्गिषु जायते।
तथा प्रलीनस्तमसि मूढयोनिषु जायते॥१४-१५॥
rajasi pralayaṁ gatvā karmasaṅgiṣu jāyate|
tathā pralīnastamasi mūḍhayoniṣu jāyate||14-15||
He who dies in Rajas is born among those attached to action and the one in Tamas, gets the womb of the deluded.
Lesson: Individuals go to persons and environs of their own wave length. Even their rebirth is held as per the thought wave they hold at the time of their death. The embodied dying in the height of Sattwa, goes to the realm of highest knowledge, while the Rajas and Tamas are respectively, born as persons attached to action and deluded one.
Subject: The Triple- Qualities and the Fruits of Actions
कर्मणः सुकृतस्याहुः सात्त्विकं निर्मलं फलम्।
रजसस्तु फलं दुःखमज्ञानं तमसः फलम्॥१४-१६॥
karmaṇaḥ sukṛtasyāhuḥ sāttvikaṁ nirmalaṁ phalam|
rajasastu phalaṁ duḥkhamajñānaṁ tamasaḥ phalam||14-16||
It is said that the fruit of good ( Sattwic) action is pious and pure (goodness); the fruit of Rajasic action is pain, while ignorance is the fruit of Tamasic acts.
सत्त्वात्संजायते ज्ञानं रजसो लोभ एव च।
प्रमादमोहौ तमसो भवतोऽज्ञानमेव च॥१४-१७॥
sattvātsaṁjāyate jñānaṁ rajaso lobha eva ca|
pramādamohau tamaso bhavato’jñānameva ca||14-17||
From Sattwa arises knowledge and greed undoubtedly from Rajas while negligence and inertness arise from Tamas as also ignorance.
ऊर्ध्वं गच्छन्ति सत्त्वस्था मध्ये तिष्ठन्ति राजसाः।
जघन्यगुणवृत्तिस्था अधो गच्छन्ति तामसाः॥१४-१८॥
ūrdhvaṁ gacchanti sattvasthā madhye tiṣṭhanti rājasāḥ|
jaghanyaguṇavṛttisthā adho gacchanti tāmasāḥ||14-18||
Those established in Sattwa evolve upwards, the Rajasic remain in the middle and the Tamasic, steeped in the lowest functions of the qualities, go downwards.
Lesson: Always strive to live a Sattwic life?a life ethically pure, noble and highly contented.
–Joy, contentment and inner tranquility are the fruit of noble deeds performed under the influence of Sattwa.With clean thinking and right judgment the Sattwic evolves upwards whether it is meditation, knowledge, action or devotion.
— Internal agitation, pain and agony of material thirst are the fruit of Rajasic action born of greed, selfishness and passion. The Rajasic fails to scale spiritual heights as he is always trapped in the endless desires and agitations.
–Tamasic actions give suffering of inertness and misdeeds. Lust and delusion of the Tamasic always bring him down.
Subject: Path of Liberation
नान्यं गुणेभ्यः कर्तारं यदा द्रष्टानुपश्यति।
गुणेभ्यश्च परं वेत्ति मद्भावं सोऽधिगच्छति॥१४-१९॥
nānyaṁ guṇebhyaḥ kartāraṁ yadā draṣṭānupaśyati|
guṇebhyaśca paraṁ vetti madbhāvaṁ so’dhigacchati||14-19||
That seer attains to My Being who beholds no agent (for his acts) other than the constituent qualities and also knows ?That? (who is) beyond the qualities. (Knows Him who is beyond the qualities.)
गुणानेतानतीत्य त्रीन्देही देहसमुद्भवान्।
guṇānetānatītya trīndehī dehasamudbhavān|
The Self-Embodied is liberated from birth, death, old age and pain and gets immortality when It transcends over the three-fold- qualities, the primary cause of the body.
Lesson: Crossing over the triple- constituent- qualities is the path of liberation.
(All bodily functions are held as per the constituent qualities. The Self-Embodied is a seer, not a doer. When It rises above the qualities, It remains unaffected from their resultant pleasure and pain and gets liberation. )
Subject: Marks of a Liberated Person
कैर्लिङ्गैस्त्रीन्गुणानेतानतीतो भवति प्रभो।
किमाचारः कथं चैतांस्त्रीन्गुणानतिवर्तते॥१४-२१॥
kairliṅgaistrīnguṇānetānatīto bhavati prabho|
kimācāraḥ kathaṁ caitāṁstrīnguṇānativartate||14-21||
What are the marks of him, O Lord, who has transcended the thee-fold qualities? What is his conduct and how does he rise above these qualities?
Lesson: Get an insight into the characteristics and conduct of the embodied who has transcended the triple qualities as also the means of getting these over.
Lord Krishna said:
Subject: Characteristics of a Liberated Person
प्रकाशं च प्रवृत्तिं च मोहमेव च पाण्डव।
त द्वेष्टि संप्रवृत्तानि न निवृत्तानि काङ्क्षति॥१४-२२॥
prakāśaṁ ca pravṛttiṁ ca mohameva ca pāṇḍava|
ta dveṣṭi saṁpravṛttāni na nivṛttāni kāṅkṣati||14-22||
O Pandava, he is said to have transcended to qualities:
–Who does not feel aversion to light (knowledge), attachment and delusion when they arise, nor does he long for them when they cease
उदासीनवदासीनो गुणैर्यो न विचाल्यते।
गुणा वर्तन्त इत्येव योऽवतिष्ठति नेङ्गते॥१४-२३॥
udāsīnavadāsīno guṇairyo na vicālyate|
guṇā vartanta ityeva yo’vatiṣṭhati neṅgate||14-23||
–Who is seated like an indifferent; who can not be moved by the constituent qualities; established in the Self who is not deviated and who stands apart knowing that all is being done by the qualities;
समदुःखसुखः स्वस्थः समलोष्टाश्मकांचनः।
samaduḥkhasukhaḥ svasthaḥ samaloṣṭāśmakāṁcanaḥ|
–Who regards pleasure and pain alike; who dwells in the Self; who considers a clod, a stone, a piece of gold alike; who is equipoise in pleasant and unpleasant (situations) and who views both censure and praise alike;
सर्वारम्भपरित्यागी गुणातीतः स उच्यते॥१४-२५॥
sarvārambhaparityāgī guṇātītaḥ sa ucyate||14-25||
–Who is indifferent to honour and dishonour; is alike (to the cause of) a friend and that of an enemy (and) who has renounced all initiatives.
Lesson: Strive to cross over the three-fold- constituent qualities by maintaining equanimity and balance with the internal and external environments, modifications and the interplay of the mind and intellect. Be equipoised amidst pleasant and unpleasant situations, honour and disgrace, censure and praise. There are five virtues required in a person who strives to cross over the qualities. These include: (1) Neither attachment nor longing for knowledge, action and inertness, (2) Established in him-self, (3) Unattached to qualities, (4) Even minded towards all modifications (changes that the gross- body undergoes),material things, persons and all sort of public life that gives him honour,dishonour,censure or praise,(5)Free from egoistic-satisfaction-of initiating-action
Subject: Transcending the Qualities
मां च योऽव्यभिचारेण भक्तियोगेन सेवते।
स गुणान्समतीत्यैतान्ब्रह्मभूयाय कल्पते॥१४-२६॥
māṁ ca yo’vyabhicāreṇa bhaktiyogena sevate|
sa guṇānsamatītyaitānbrahmabhūyāya kalpate||14-26||
And he (who) worships Me with unswerving devotion, transcends the triple qualities (and) becomes Brahman (Attains Braham Nirvana).
ब्रह्मणो हि प्रतिष्ठाहममृतस्याव्ययस्य च।
शाश्वतस्य च धर्मस्य सुखस्यैकान्तिकस्य च॥१४-२७॥
brahmaṇo hi pratiṣṭhāhamamṛtasyāvyayasya ca|
śāśvatasya ca dharmasya sukhasyaikāntikasya ca||14-27||
For I am the abode of Brahman (the Immortal and Imperishable), of Eternal (Sanatan) Dharma (laws) and of unending bliss.
Lesson: The service offered (action performed) with unswerving devotion is called worship. Such a worship ends all agitations and interplays of the mind and intellect; gives rise to Sattwa, while Rajas and Tamas remain subdued and the doer gets perfection in his work, the ultimate composition of the mind. Therefore, perform your duty with dedication and devotion, as if you are serving the Supreme.