त्रयोदशोऽध्यायः — क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञविभाग योगः

अर्जुन उवाच।
arjuna uvāca|
Arjuna said:

Subject: Inquisition about Creation and Creator
प्रकृतिं पुरुषं चैव क्षेत्रं क्षेत्रज्ञमेव च।
एतद्वेदितुमिच्छामि ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं च केशव॥१३-१॥
prakṛtiṁ puruṣaṁ caiva kṣetraṁ kṣetrajñameva ca|
etadveditumicchāmi jñānaṁ jñeyaṁ ca keśava||13-1||
Meaning: What is prakriti and purusa (matter and spirit); what is known as the Field (kshetra) and who is the Knower of the Field (kshetragya); what is Knowledge and what should be Known (object of knowledge), O Kesava, I want to learn all these.
Lesson: Which ever path a Yogi adopts, he should know what he is searching for and the relationship of his pursuit with the material world.
(The above shloka is found in many editions of Gita while it is missing in others. Originally, there are said to be seven hundred shlokas only)

श्रीभगवानुवाच।
śrībhagavānuvāca|
Lord Krishna said:

Subject: Body and the Self (Soul)
इदं शरीरं कौन्तेय क्षेत्रमित्यभिधीयते।
एतद्यो वेत्ति तं प्राहुः क्षेत्रज्ञ इति तद्विदः॥१३-२॥
idaṁ śarīraṁ kaunteya kṣetramityabhidhīyate|
etadyo vetti taṁ prāhuḥ kṣetrajña iti tadvidaḥ||13-2||
Meaning: This body, O Son of Kunti, is said to be the Field (Kshetra). He who knows (perceives or views) it, is called the Knower-of-the-Field (Kshetragya). This is told by those who know them (the Field and the Knower of the Field).
क्षेत्रज्ञं चापि मां विद्धि सर्वक्षेत्रेषु भारत।
क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञयोर्ज्ञानं यत्तज्ज्ञानं मतं मम॥१३-३॥
kṣetrajñaṁ cāpi māṁ viddhi sarvakṣetreṣu bhārata|
kṣetrakṣetrajñayorjñānaṁ yattajjñānaṁ mataṁ mama||13-3||
Meaning: Know Me as the Knower –of-the-Field (Self-in-dwelling) in all the ‘Fields’ (physical bodies). The knowledge of the Field and the Knower-of-the-Field, I consider, as the true Knowledge.
Lesson. The physical body is the Field where all activities take place. The Self (the vital consciousness), which beholds the activities of the physical body, is the Knower-of-the-Field (Conscious Viewer). The Supreme-Self dwells as the Self-Embodied, in all the physical bodies. The knowledge about the Self-indwelling and the physical body (world) is the only true knowledge to be explored

Subject: The Material World and Its Creator
तत्क्षेत्रं यच्च यादृक्च यद्विकारि यतश्च यत्।
स च यो यत्प्रभावश्च तत्समासेन मे शृणु॥१३-४॥
tatkṣetraṁ yacca yādṛkca yadvikāri yataśca yat|
sa ca yo yatprabhāvaśca tatsamāsena me śṛṇu||13-4||
Meaning: What is the Field; what is its (Field’s) nature (disposition); what are its modifications (the changes it goes through); (since) when it has been; who is He (the Knower- of- the Field); and what are His powers, listen all this from Me, in brief.
Lesson: For getting True Knowledge, have an insight into the nature and the origin of the physical world and its creator (the Knower- of- the-Field).

Subject: Source of Knowledge
ऋषिभिर्बहुधा गीतं छन्दोभिर्विविधैः पृथक्।
ब्रह्मसूत्रपदैश्चैव हेतुमद्भिर्विनिश्चितैः॥१३-५॥
ṛṣibhirbahudhā gītaṁ chandobhirvividhaiḥ pṛthak|
brahmasūtrapadaiścaiva hetumadbhirviniścitaiḥ||13-5||
Meaning: The sages have sung this distinctively in various hymns of Vedas and also in the passages of BrahmSutra (the Aphorisms of the Absolute), in many ways and conclusively with reasons.
Lesson:  The hymns of Vedas and Brahmsutra passages are the real source of knowledge about the material world and its creator.

Subject: The Field (Material Body) and Its Modifications
महाभूतान्यहंकारो बुद्धिरव्यक्तमेव च।
इन्द्रियाणि दशैकं च पंच चेन्द्रियगोचराः॥१३-६॥
mahābhūtānyahaṁkāro buddhiravyaktameva ca|
indriyāṇi daśaikaṁ ca paṁca cendriyagocarāḥ||13-6||
Meaning: The (five) great elements, ego, intellect, five sense and five motor organs, five sense-objects and one mind;
इच्छा द्वेषः सुखं दुःखं संघातश्चेतना धृतिः।
एतत्क्षेत्रं समासेन सविकारमुदाहृतम्॥१३-७॥
icchā dveṣaḥ sukhaṁ duḥkhaṁ saṁghātaścetanā dhṛtiḥ|
etatkṣetraṁ samāsena savikāramudāhṛtam||13-7||
Meaning: Desire, hatred, pleasure, pain, physical strength or prowess) intelligence and conviction all these in brief are described as the Field with its modifications.
Lesson: There are 24 constituents of the Field (physical body) which under- goes seven changes viz: desire, hatred, pleasure, pain, physical strength, consciousness, conviction or resolve.

Subject: Knowledge
अमानित्वमदम्भित्वमहिंसा क्षान्तिरार्जवम्।
आचार्योपासनं शौचं स्थैर्यमात्मविनिग्रहः॥१३-८॥
amānitvamadambhitvamahiṁsā kṣāntirārjavam|
ācāryopāsanaṁ śaucaṁ sthairyamātmavinigrahaḥ||13-8||
Meaning: Humility (absence of proud), absence of deceit, non-violence, forgiveness, uprightness, service to teacher (guru), purity (of mind and body; thought, word and deed), steadfast ness and self-control
इन्द्रियार्थेषु वैराग्यमनहंकार एव च।
जन्ममृत्युजराव्याधिदुःखदोषानुदर्शनम्॥१३-९॥
indriyārtheṣu vairāgyamanahaṁkāra eva ca|
janmamṛtyujarāvyādhiduḥkhadoṣānudarśanam||13-9||
Meaning: Aversion for sense-objects, absence of ego, constant reflection on pain and miseries inherent in birth, death, disease, and decay;
असक्तिरनभिष्वङ्गः पुत्रदारगृहादिषु।
नित्यं च समचित्तत्वमिष्टानिष्टोपपत्तिषु॥१३-१०॥
asaktiranabhiṣvaṅgaḥ putradāragṛhādiṣu|
nityaṁ ca samacittatvamiṣṭāniṣṭopapattiṣu||13-10||
Meaning: Non-attachment (to fruits of action) and unattached to son, wife, home and all others, ever equanimous to all desirable and undesirable happenings;
मयि चानन्ययोगेन भक्तिरव्यभिचारिणी।
विविक्तदेशसेवित्वमरतिर्जनसंसदि॥१३-११॥
mayi cānanyayogena bhaktiravyabhicāriṇī|
viviktadeśasevitvamaratirjanasaṁsadi||13-11||
Meaning: Unwavering devotion, in steady yoga, to Me n, taste for solitude (introvert nature), distaste for social gatherings;
अध्यात्मज्ञाननित्यत्वं तत्त्वज्ञानार्थदर्शनम्।
एतज्ज्ञानमिति प्रोक्तमज्ञानं यदतोऽन्यथा॥१३-१२॥
adhyātmajñānanityatvaṁ tattvajñānārthadarśanam|
etajjñānamiti proktamajñānaṁ yadato’nyathā||13-12||
Meaning: Consistency (in pursuit) of cosmic knowledge (Brahm-Gyan) with deeper realization that all is pervaded by the omnipresent Supreme-being; all this is known to be knowledge and contrary to this is ignorance.
ज्ञेयं यत्तत्प्रवक्ष्यामि यज्ज्ञात्वाऽमृतमश्नुते।
अनादिमत्परं ब्रह्म न सत्तन्नासदुच्यते॥१३-१३॥
jñeyaṁ yattatpravakṣyāmi yajjñātvā’mṛtamaśnute|
anādimatparaṁ brahma na sattannāsaducyate||13-13||
Meaning: I will (now) describe the ‘Knowable’, by knowing which one attains immortality. It is the Beginning less Supreme-Being ( Brahman ) who is said to be neither ‘Being’ nor Beingless’ ‘(neither ‘Existent’ nor ‘Non-Existent’).
Lesson: There are twenty virtues mentioned in the above five shlokas. A devotee of firm resolve should essentially observe these values in his search for the knower-of- Field.
The Beginning less, Imperishable Supreme (Brahman) alone is Knowable.

Subject: The Knower of the Field
सर्वतः पाणिपादं तत्सर्वतोऽक्षिशिरोमुखम्।
सर्वतः श्रुतिमल्लोके सर्वमावृत्य तिष्ठति॥१३-१४॥
sarvataḥ pāṇipādaṁ tatsarvato’kṣiśiromukham|
sarvataḥ śrutimalloke sarvamāvṛtya tiṣṭhati||13-14||
Meaning: He exists in the world, enveloping all, with hands and feet every where, with eyes, heads, mouths every where and ears every where.
सर्वेन्द्रियगुणाभासं सर्वेन्द्रियविवर्जितम्।
असक्तं सर्वभृच्चैव निर्गुणं गुणभोक्तृ च॥१३-१५॥
sarvendriyaguṇābhāsaṁ sarvendriyavivarjitam|
asaktaṁ sarvabhṛccaiva nirguṇaṁ guṇabhoktṛ ca||13-15||
Meaning: Manifested through the functions of all the senses, (He) is yet without the senses; unattached though, yet sustaining all; devoid of the constituent qualities, (He is) yet their enjoyer.
Lesson: The Supreme – Self, One-in-All, is spread across the world. The Self-indwelling, a fraction of the Supreme, enveloping all activates various parts of the embodied to function. Their constituents are His constituents. Devoid of the three-fold constituent qualities, the Self-embodied is unattached to the body. As the constituents of the body are activated/ sustained by Him, He appears to be the enjoyer of the qualities and possessor of the senses.

Subject: Knower of the Field
बहिरन्तश्च भूतानामचरं चरमेव च।
सूक्ष्मत्वात्तदविज्ञेयं दूरस्थं चान्तिके च तत्॥१३-१६॥
bahirantaśca bhūtānāmacaraṁ carameva ca|
sūkṣmatvāttadavijñeyaṁ dūrasthaṁ cāntike ca tat||13-16||
Meaning: He is without and within- all- beings. He is unmoving as also moving. He is close by and yet at a distance. Being subtle He is inconceivable (incomprehensible).
अविभक्तं च भूतेषु विभक्तमिव च स्थितम्।
भूतभर्तृ च तज्ज्ञेयं ग्रसिष्णु प्रभविष्णु च॥१३-१७॥
avibhaktaṁ ca bhūteṣu vibhaktamiva ca sthitam|
bhūtabhartṛ ca tajjñeyaṁ grasiṣṇu prabhaviṣṇu ca||13-17||
Meaning: He is indivisible and yet exists as if divided among all beings. He is to be known as the supporter of beings, as (also) creator and destroyer.
ज्योतिषामपि तज्ज्योतिस्तमसः परमुच्यते।
ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं ज्ञानगम्यं हृदि सर्वस्य विष्ठितम्॥१३-१८॥
jyotiṣāmapi tajjyotistamasaḥ paramucyate|
jñānaṁ jñeyaṁ jñānagamyaṁ hṛdi sarvasya viṣṭhitam||13-18||
Meaning: The light- of –all- lights, He is said to be beyond darkness. Established in the hearts of all (He is) knowledge, object of knowledge (and) can be known by knowledge alone.
इति क्षेत्रं तथा ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं चोक्तं सनासतः।
मद्भक्त एतद्विज्ञाय मद्भावायोपपद्यते॥१३-१९॥
iti kṣetraṁ tathā jñānaṁ jñeyaṁ coktaṁ sanāsataḥ|
madbhakta etadvijñāya madbhāvāyopapadyate||13-19||
Meaning: Thus the Field, the Knowledge and the Knowable have briefly been described. Knowing this, My devotee attains My Being.
Lesson: The Supreme is Transcendent and Immanent (One and the same in all). Inconceivable, He can be realized only inwardly
Being existed separately in different beings, the Indivisible- Supreme appears to be divided and dissimilar. He is One- without- a- second. All are derived from Him. He is the creator, sustainer and destroyer of all.
The Self-Embodied is like the Ever-Shining-Light which illumines even the darkness (the world of perception).He is the knowledge, object of knowledge and knowable through knowledge alone.
He achieves the Supreme-Goal who strives to know the Body, the Self –within and the Knowledge of the Self.

Subject: Matter and Self-Embodied
प्रकृतिं पुरुषं चैव विद्यनादि उभावपि।
विकारांश्च गुणांश्चैव विद्धि प्रकृतिसंभवान्॥१३-२०॥
prakṛtiṁ puruṣaṁ caiva vidyanādi ubhāvapi|
vikārāṁśca guṇāṁścaiva viddhi prakṛtisaṁbhavān||13-20||
Meaning: Know that the Nature (the Field or physical elements) and the Self-within (the Knower-of—the-Field: ) are both beginningless; and also know that the former or modifications and the constituent qualities are born of Nature (the Field)
कार्यकारणकर्तृत्वे हेतुः प्रकृतिरुच्यते।
पुरुषः सुखदुःखानां भोक्तृत्वे हेतुरुच्यते॥१३-२१॥
kāryakāraṇakartṛtve hetuḥ prakṛtirucyate|
puruṣaḥ sukhaduḥkhānāṁ bhoktṛtve heturucyate||13-21||
Meaning: (In the process of the cause and effect,) The Nature (physical elements) is said to be the cause (of action) and the Self-Embodied is said to be the cause in regard to the experience of pleasure and pain.
Subject; Attachment to Constituent Qualities
पुरुषः प्रकृतिस्थो हि भुङ्क्ते प्रकृतिजान्गुणान्।
कारणं गुणसङ्गोऽस्य सदसद्योनिजन्मसु॥१३-२२॥
puruṣaḥ prakṛtistho hi bhuṅkte prakṛtijānguṇān|
kāraṇaṁ guṇasaṅgo’sya sadasadyonijanmasu||13-22||
Meaning: Established in the Nature, the Self-Embodied experiences the constituent qualities of Nature. Attachment to these qualities is the cause of (ones’) birth in good or evil wombs.
Lesson: The Nature and the Self-Embodied are beginning less. All modifications and the constituent qualities originate from the Nature (physical elements). All activities are subject to cause and effect. While the Nature is the cause of the actions of the body, the senses and the Self-Embodied are the cause of experiences. The latter experiences bodily sensations caused by the three-fold constituent qualities. Ones attachment to these qualities causes him worldly miseries of birth and death.

Subject: Characteristics of the Soul
उपद्रष्टानुमन्ता च भर्ता भोक्ता महेश्वरः।
परमात्मेति चाप्युक्तो देहेऽस्मिन्पुरुषः परः॥१३-२३॥
upadraṣṭānumantā ca bhartā bhoktā maheśvaraḥ|
paramātmeti cāpyukto dehe’sminpuruṣaḥ paraḥ||13-23||
Meaning: Dwelling in this body, the Self-Embodied is beyond the body. He is said to be the Viewer, the Permitter, the Supporter, the Experiencer, the Great Lord and the Supreme.
य एवं वेत्ति पुरुषं प्रकृतिं च गुणैः सह।
सर्वथा वर्तमानोऽपि न स भूयोऽभिजायते॥१३-२४॥
ya evaṁ vetti puruṣaṁ prakṛtiṁ ca guṇaiḥ saha|
sarvathā vartamāno’pi na sa bhūyo’bhijāyate||13-24||
Meaning: He is not reborn, in whatever way he acts, who (thus) knows the Self-Embodied and the Nature (physical world) together with the(role of) constituent qualities.
Lesson: The Self-Embodied is above the physical world. It is said to be a Viewer as it witnesses; a permitter as it gives good counseling; a supporter as it sustains; an experiencer as it pulsates senses and feels sensation. Being the master of the body, it is the Great Lord, master of all.
For getting liberation from the cycle of births and deaths try to acquire true knowledge of the Self-Embodied, the physical world and the Constituent Qualities.

Subject: Knowledge of the Self
ध्यानेनात्मनि पश्यन्ति केचिदात्मानमात्मना।
अन्ये साङ्ख्येन योगेन कर्मयोगेन चापरे॥१३-२५॥
dhyānenātmani paśyanti kecidātmānamātmanā|
anye sāṅkhyena yogena karmayogena cāpare||13-25||
Meaning: Some by meditation perceive the Self in the Self by the Self; others by the Yoga (path of knowledge) and still others by action (karma yoga).
अन्ये त्वेवमजानन्तः श्रुत्वान्येभ्य उपासते।
तेऽपि चातितरन्त्येव मृत्युं श्रुतिपरायणाः॥१३-२६॥
anye tvevamajānantaḥ śrutvānyebhya upāsate|
te’pi cātitarantyeva mṛtyuṁ śrutiparāyaṇāḥ||13-26||
Meaning: Yet others, not knowing this (these three paths), hearing from others, start worshiping. They too transcend death, if they devotedly follow as their Supreme Goal what they have heard.
Lesson: There are three pathways of Self-realization namely; meditation, pursuit of knowledge and action. The fourth path is devotion to what is told by the wise. All the pathways lead to one and the same destination.

Subject: Birth of All Beings
यावत्संजायते किंचित्सत्त्वं स्थावरजङ्गमम्।
क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञसंयोगात्तद्विद्धि भरतर्षभ॥१३-२७॥
yāvatsaṁjāyate kiṁcitsattvaṁ sthāvarajaṅgamam|
kṣetrakṣetrajñasaṁyogāttadviddhi bharatarṣabha||13-27||
Meaning: Whatever moving or unmoving being is born,  O Best of the Bharat Dynasty , know that it is through the union of the Field (physical elements) and the Knower –of-the-Field (Self or the Supreme- Consciousness).
समं सर्वेषु भूतेषु तिष्ठन्तं परमेश्वरम्
विनश्यत्स्वविनश्यन्तं यः पश्यति स पश्यति॥१३-२८॥
samaṁ sarveṣu bhūteṣu tiṣṭhantaṁ parameśvaram
vinaśyatsvavinaśyantaṁ yaḥ paśyati sa paśyati||13-28||
Meaning: He sees who sees with even- mind, the Supreme- Imperishable abiding in all the perishable beings;
समं पश्यन्हि सर्वत्र समवस्थितमीश्वरम्।
न हिनस्त्यात्मनात्मानं ततो याति परां गतिम्॥१३-२९॥
samaṁ paśyanhi sarvatra samavasthitamīśvaram|
na hinastyātmanātmānaṁ tato yāti parāṁ gatim||13-29||
Meaning: For he sees the same Supreme- Self every where abiding in every living being, does not destroy his true Self by the Self .Verily, he achieves the Supreme position.
Lesson: All beings, whether movable or immovable, are born through the union of physical elements (matter) and the Self or the supreme- consciousness
He achieves the supreme position who knows this and beholds, with even mind, the Imperishable- Supreme abiding in all beings.

Subject: The Viewer
प्रकृत्यैव च कर्माणि क्रियमाणानि सर्वशः।
यः पश्यति तथात्मानमकर्तारं स पश्यति॥१३-३०॥
prakṛtyaiva ca karmāṇi kriyamāṇāni sarvaśaḥ|
yaḥ paśyati tathātmānamakartāraṁ sa paśyati||13-30||
Meaning: He verily sees who sees that all actions are performed by Nature (physical world or the gross-body) and that the Self is not the `Doer` or Performer.
Subject: Supreme Knowledge
यदा भूतपृथग्भावमेकस्थमनुपश्यति।
तत एव च विस्तारं ब्रह्म संपद्यते तदा॥१३-३१॥
yadā bhūtapṛthagbhāvamekasthamanupaśyati|
tata eva ca vistāraṁ brahma saṁpadyate tadā||13-31||
Meaning: He than attains Brahman (the Supreme) when he sees that the manifold forms of beings are establishing in the ONE and from that ONE alone spreading forth.
Lesson: The Self-indwelling is only a Viewer, a witness and a Non-Doer. All actions are performed by nature (the physical or gross- body).The mind and the intellect are affected by actions, not the Self-indwelling.
The Supreme ONE alone abides in manifold state of beings. They all develop from Him. This is (known as) the Supreme- Knowledge.

Subject: Nature of the Self
अनादित्वान्निर्गुणत्वात्परमात्मायमव्ययः।
शरीरस्थोऽपि कौन्तेय न करोति न लिप्यते॥१३-३२॥
anāditvānnirguṇatvātparamātmāyamavyayaḥ|
śarīrastho’pi kaunteya na karoti na lipyate||13-32||
Meaning: Being without beginning and being beyond the constituent qualities, O Son of Kunti, this Imperishable Self-Embodied neither acts, nor it is contaminated, though living in the body.
यथा सर्वगतं सौक्ष्म्यादाकाशं नोपलिप्यते।
सर्वत्रावस्थितो देहे तथात्मा नोपलिप्यते॥१३-३३॥
yathā sarvagataṁ saukṣmyādākāśaṁ nopalipyate|
sarvatrāvasthito dehe tathātmā nopalipyate||13-33||
Meaning: As the all- pervading sky is not contaminated because of its subtlety, similarly the Self-Embodied, is also not contaminated or tainted, (though) present everywhere in the body
यथा प्रकाशयत्येकः कृत्स्नं लोकमिमं रविः।
क्षेत्रं क्षेत्री तथा कृत्स्नं प्रकाशयति भारत॥१३-३४॥
yathā prakāśayatyekaḥ kṛtsnaṁ lokamimaṁ raviḥ|
kṣetraṁ kṣetrī tathā kṛtsnaṁ prakāśayati bhārata||13-34||
Meaning: As the one sun illumines this entire world so also, O Bharata, the Lord of the Field (the Self-Embodied) illumines this entire Field (physical body).
Lesson: Though living in the entire (physical) body, the Imperishable- Self-Embodied remains unaffected from the affects of the body. It neither acts, nor it is contaminated because it is beginningless and beyond the triple-fold- constituent- qualities.
The body gets all energy, light and vibration from the Self-Embodied. He alone is its existence.

Subject: The Body, the Self-Embodied and Liberation
क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञयोरेवमन्तरं ज्ञानचक्षुषा।
भूतप्रकृतिमोक्षं च ये विदुर्यान्ति ते परम्॥१३-३५॥
kṣetrakṣetrajñayorevamantaraṁ jñānacakṣuṣā|
bhūtaprakṛtimokṣaṁ ca ye viduryānti te param||13-35||
Meaning: They get Self- realization (attain Brahman; the Supreme) who perceive with their eye- of- wisdom the difference between the Field and the Knower-of-the-Field as also the liberation of beings from prakriti (nature or the material world).
Lesson: For Self-realization try to understand the difference between the Gross-Body and the Self-Embodied. Also try to know as how beings are liberated from the material existence.

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