Subject: The Best Knower of Yoga
एवं सततयुक्ता ये भक्तास्त्वां पर्युपासते।
ये चाप्यक्षरमव्यक्तं तेषां के योगवित्तमाः॥१२-१॥
evaṁ satatayuktā ye bhaktāstvāṁ paryupāsate|
ye cāpyakṣaramavyaktaṁ teṣāṁ ke yogavittamāḥ||12-1||
Meaning: Who among the two is the best knower of yoga? The one who persistently worships Your this (human) form and the other who worships You as Imperishable and Unmanifested.
Lesson: There are two types of devotees who seek oneness with the Absolute (1)Devoted to the manifested form of the Supreme-Being in the manifested world (His Sagun Roop),(2)Ever engaged in the meditation of the Unmanifested (His Nirgun- Roop) ,having detached from the manifested world of physical elements.)
Lord Krishna said:
Subject: The Best Yogi
मय्यावेश्य मनो ये मां नित्ययुक्ता उपासते।
श्रद्धया परयोपेताः ते मे युक्ततमा मताः॥१२-२॥
mayyāveśya mano ye māṁ nityayuktā upāsate|
śraddhayā parayopetāḥ te me yuktatamā matāḥ||12-2||
Meaning: I consider them best among all the yogis who worship My manifested Form with single-minded devotion and supreme faith.
ये त्वक्षरमनिर्देश्यं अव्यक्तं पर्युपासते।
सर्वत्रगमचिंत्यंच कूटस्थं अचलंध्रुवम्॥१२-३॥
ye tvakṣaramanirdeśyaṁ avyaktaṁ paryupāsate|
sarvatragamaciṁtyaṁca kūṭasthaṁ acalaṁdhruvam||12-3||
Meaning: (But) those who worship the Imperishable, the Indefinable, the Unmanifested, the Omnipresent, the Immovable and the Unconceivable;
संनियम्येन्द्रियग्रामं सर्वत्र समबुद्धयाः।
ते प्राप्नुवन्ति मामेव सर्वभूतहिते रताः॥१२-४॥
saṁniyamyendriyagrāmaṁ sarvatra samabuddhayāḥ|
te prāpnuvanti māmeva sarvabhūtahite ratāḥ||12-4||
Meaning: Having controlled all their senses, being even minded every where, rejoicing ever in the welfare of all creatures, indeed come to Me.
Lesson: The best among the Yogis is he who worships the manifested – form of the Supreme with single minded devotion and complete faith. But, he who is ever engaged in the meditation of the Unmanifested, having restrained his senses and fully absorbed in the welfare of all beings, attains the Supreme-Being.
(He alone is most successful who performs his duty with faith and single minded devotion for the welfare of all beings).
Subject: Difficult Yoga
अव्यक्ताहि गतिर्दुःखं देहवद्भिरवाप्यते॥१२-५॥
avyaktāhi gatirduḥkhaṁ dehavadbhiravāpyate||12-5||
Meaning: Self-realization is more difficult for them whose minds are set on the Unmanifested -the Eternal-Being, as His comprehension by the embodied-being is done after great difficulty.
Lesson: Transcendental meditation (worship of the Unmanifested Supreme-Being) is more difficult for the embodied-beings than the worship of His manifested- form.
Subject: Duty and Devotion
ये तु सर्वाणि कर्माणि मयि संन्यस्य मत्परः।
अनन्येनैव योगेन मां ध्यायन्त उपासते॥१२-६॥
ye tu sarvāṇi karmāṇi mayi saṁnyasya matparaḥ|
ananyenaiva yogena māṁ dhyāyanta upāsate||12-6||
Meaning: Dedicating all (their) acts to Me, absorbed in Me who worship considering Me as their Supreme goal with single-minded devotion;
तेषामहं समुद्धर्ता मृत्युसंसारसागरात्।
भवामि न चिरात्पार्थ मय्यावेशितचेतसाम्॥१२-७॥
teṣāmahaṁ samuddhartā mṛtyusaṁsārasāgarāt|
bhavāmi na cirātpārtha mayyāveśitacetasām||12-7||
Meaning: For them whose minds are set on Me, O Partha, verily I soon become their redeemer from the ocean of the birth and death.
Lesson: Those who follow the path of devotion should: (1) Consider the worshiped as their supreme goal; (2) Be ever absorbed in His contemplation; (3) Worship Him with single-minded devotion; (4) Perform all their actions (duties) as worship to the worshiped.
मय्येव मन आधत्स्व मयि बुद्धिं निवेशय।
निवसिष्यसि मय्येव अत ऊर्ध्वं न संशयः॥१२-८॥
mayyeva mana ādhatsva mayi buddhiṁ niveśaya|
nivasiṣyasi mayyeva ata ūrdhvaṁ na saṁśayaḥ||12-8||
Meaning: By engaging your mind and intellect in Me you will undoubtedly dwell in Me alone.
Lesson: For reaching up to the worshiped, the devotee should concentrate his mind and intellect in the worshiped.
(Concentration of mind and intellect is necessary for attainment of your goal with excellence)
Subject: Yoga -Practice
अथचित्तं समाधातुं न शक्नोषि मयि स्थिरम्।
अभ्यासयोगेन ततो मामिच्छाप्तुं धनंजय॥१२-९॥
athacittaṁ samādhātuṁ na śaknoṣi mayi sthiram|
abhyāsayogena tato māmicchāptuṁ dhanaṁjaya||12-9||
Meaning: If you can not establish your mind steadily in Me, then O Dhananjaya, strive to attain Me through constant practice. (of the Yoga of meditation).
Lesson: Those who fail to concentrate their mind and intellect in their worshiped, should have a steady practice of the yoga of meditation.
(Concentration of mind and intellect requires steady practice).
Subject: Perfection by Action
अभ्यासेऽप्यसमर्थोऽसि मत्कर्मपरमो भव।
मदर्थमपि कर्माणि कुर्वन्सिद्धिमवाप्स्यसि॥१२-१०॥
abhyāse’pyasamartho’si matkarmaparamo bhava|
madarthamapi karmāṇi kurvansiddhimavāpsyasi||12-10||
Meaning: Be engaged in action (perform your duty) for my sake, aiming as My service, if you are unable to practice yoga of steady meditation. Even by performing duty, for My sake, you shall attain perfection.
Lesson: The devotee who is unable to practice the yoga of meditation should perform actions (accomplish his duties) as if he is working for the worshiped?doing the job of the worshiped.
Subject: Desireless Action
अथैतदप्यशक्तोऽसि कर्तुं मद्योगमाश्रितः।
सर्वकर्मफलत्यागं ततः कुरु यतात्मवान्॥१२-११॥
athaitadapyaśakto’si kartuṁ madyogamāśritaḥ|
sarvakarmaphalatyāgaṁ tataḥ kuru yatātmavān||12-11||
Meaning: If you are unable to practice even this (practice of meditation), then with subdued mind (free from anxieties), taking refuge in My service (field of action), renounce the fruits- of- all ?actions (detachment to actions).
श्रेयो हि ज्ञानमभ्यासाज्ज्ञानाद्ध्यानं विशिष्यते।
śreyo hi jñānamabhyāsājjñānāddhyānaṁ viśiṣyate|
Meaning: Better indeed is knowledge than (ritualistic)
practices; better is meditation than knowledge ( study of scriptures); renunciation (of fruits- of – actions) is even better than meditation (because) peace (inner- tranquility) immediately follows renunciation.
Lesson: With subdued mind, perform your duty, having renounced attachments to results, (as a service to the worshipped), if you are unable to perform transcendental pursuit. Renunciation (of the fruits of action) is better than ritualistic acts, meditation and even the study of scriptures.
Subject: Qualities of a True Devotee
अद्वेष्टा सर्वभूतानां मैत्रः करुण एव च।
निर्ममो निरहङ्कारः समदुःखसुखः क्षमी॥१२-१३॥
adveṣṭā sarvabhūtānāṁ maitraḥ karuṇa eva ca|
nirmamo nirahaṅkāraḥ samaduḥkhasukhaḥ kṣamī||12-13||
Meaning: He who does not hate any one; who is friendly and compassionate; who is free from attachment and ego, who is even-minded in pleasure and pain; forgiving;
संतुष्टः सततं योगी यतात्मा दृढनिश्चयः।
मय्यर्पितमनोबुद्धिर्यो मद्भक्तः स मे प्रियः॥१२-१४॥
saṁtuṣṭaḥ satataṁ yogī yatātmā dṛḍhaniścayaḥ|
mayyarpitamanobuddhiryo madbhaktaḥ sa me priyaḥ||12-14||
Meaning: That devotee is dear to Me who is ever satisfied, self-controlled, steady in meditation whose resolve is firm who takes refuge in Me (dedicates mind and intellect to Me);
यस्मान्नोद्विजते लोको लोकान्नोद्विजते च यः।
हर्षामर्षभयोद्वेगैर्मुक्तो यः स च मे प्रियः॥१२-१५॥
yasmānnodvijate loko lokānnodvijate ca yaḥ|
harṣāmarṣabhayodvegairmukto yaḥ sa ca me priyaḥ||12-15||
Meaning: He is dear to Me by whom none is agitated, nor is he agitated by any one, who is free from joy, envy, fear and agitation;
अनपेक्षः शुचिर्दक्ष उदासीनो गतव्यथः।
सर्वारम्भपरित्यागी यो मद्भक्तः स मे प्रियः॥१२-१६॥
anapekṣaḥ śucirdakṣa udāsīno gatavyathaḥ|
sarvārambhaparityāgī yo madbhaktaḥ sa me priyaḥ||12-16||
Meaning: Such a devotee is dear to me who is free from desires, who inwardly and out worldly, is pure, who is alert, indifferent untroubled and who has given up all initiatives (related to actions);
यो न हृष्यति न द्वेष्टि न शोचति न काङ्क्षति।
शुभाशुभपरित्यागी भक्तिमान्यः स मे प्रियः॥१२-१७॥
yo na hṛṣyati na dveṣṭi na śocati na kāṅkṣati|
śubhāśubhaparityāgī bhaktimānyaḥ sa me priyaḥ||12-17||
Meaning: That person full of devotion is dear to Me ,who neither rejoices nor grieves nor desires, who has renounced the fruits of good and evil deeds;
समः शत्रौ च मित्रे च तथा मानापमानयोः।
शीतोष्णसुखदुःखेषु समः सङ्गविवर्जितः॥१२-१८॥
samaḥ śatrau ca mitre ca tathā mānāpamānayoḥ|
śītoṣṇasukhaduḥkheṣu samaḥ saṅgavivarjitaḥ||12-18||
Meaning: He who is even-minded to friend and foe, for honour and disgrace, cold and heat, pleasure and pain and who is unattached:
तुल्यनिन्दास्तुतिर्मौनी संतुष्टो येन केनचित्।
अनिकेतः स्थिरमतिर्भक्तिमान्मे प्रियो नरः॥१२-१९॥
tulyanindāstutirmaunī saṁtuṣṭo yena kenacit|
aniketaḥ sthiramatirbhaktimānme priyo naraḥ||12-19||
Meaning: That devotee is dear to Me who is equipoised in censure and praise, who is silent (restrained in speech), contented with any thing, unattached to living conditions and who is of steady mind;
ये तु धर्म्यामृतमिदं यथोक्तं पर्युपासते।
श्रद्दधाना मत्परमा भक्तास्तेऽतीव मे प्रियाः॥१२-२०॥
ye tu dharmyāmṛtamidaṁ yathoktaṁ paryupāsate|
śraddadhānā matparamā bhaktāste’tīva me priyāḥ||12-20||
Meaning: Those devotees are exceedingly dear to Me, who endowed with faith, and holding Me as their supreme goal, follow the aforementioned immortal Dharma without attachment.
Lesson: In the above seven stanzas (shlokas), thirty six requisite qualities have been mentioned for a true devotee or a man who endeavors to excel in his mission. Enriched with these qualities he can not be trapped by the forces of attraction and hate or friendship and enimosity.With steady mind and complete devotion in his mission he attains his highest goal. These qualities include :(1) malice to none, (2) friendly, (3)compassionate, (4) free from attachment and egoism, (5)even-minded in pain and pleasure, (6)forgiveness, (7) ever contented, (8)steady in meditation, (9)self-control, (10) firm conviction/resolve, (11)mind and intellect ever focused on the supreme goal, (12)not agitated by worldly affairs, (13) does not agitate others by worldly worries, (14) completely free from the inward causes of agitation such as joy, envey, fear anxiety etc., (15)independent of the objects of the world, (16) pure, (17) alert, (18)indifferent, (19) free from inner agitation/ fear, (20) free from ego of initiating action, (21) no rejoice, (22) no hatred, (23)no grieve, (24)desireless, (25)no attachment to the fruits of good deeds, (26)no attachment to the fruits of evil deeds, (27)treating friends and foes alike, (28) treating honour and dishonour alike, (29) treating heat and cold alike, (30)treating censure and praise alike, (31) treating pleasure and pain alike, (32) silent, (33) contented with any thing/every thing, (34)unattached to home/family or living conditions, (35) full devotion, (36)steady mind.