सप्तमोऽध्यायः — ज्ञानविज्ञान योगः

श्रीभगवानुवाच।
śrībhagavānuvāca|
Lord Krishna said:

Subject: Metaphysical Knowledge
मय्यासक्तमनाः पार्थ योगं युञ्जन्मदाश्रयः।
असंशयं समग्रं मां यथा ज्ञास्यसि तच्छृणु॥७-१॥
mayyāsaktamanāḥ pārtha yogaṁ yuñjanmadāśrayaḥ|
asaṁśayaṁ samagraṁ māṁ yathā jñāsyasi tacchṛṇu||7-1||
Performing Yoga in My refuge, with your mind absorbed in Me, how you shall know Me completely,  without any doubt, that you listen, O Partha!
ज्ञानं तेऽहं सविज्ञानमिदं वक्ष्याम्यशेषतः।
यज्ज्ञात्वा नेह भूयोऽन्यज्ज्ञातव्यमवशिष्यते॥७-२॥
jñānaṁ te’haṁ savijñānamidaṁ vakṣyāmyaśeṣataḥ|
yajjñātvā neha bhūyo’nyajjñātavyamavaśiṣyate||7-2||
I shall fully tell you about this (Self) knowledge combined with wisdom (Self-realization), knowing that nothing is left here (in this world) to be known.
Lesson: While in meditation, strive to acquire integral knowledge of the Absolute and His varied manifestations. This is the highest knowledge. Nothing is left to be known in this world after knowing this.

Subject: Perfection in Yoga
मनुष्याणां सहस्रेषु कश्चिद्यतति सिद्धये।
यततामपि सिद्धानां कश्चिन्मां वेत्ति तत्त्वतः॥७-३॥
manuṣyāṇāṁ sahasreṣu kaścidyatati siddhaye|
yatatāmapi siddhānāṁ kaścinmāṁ vetti tattvataḥ||7-3||
One among thousands strives to achieve perfection (in Self-realization). Even among those who strive and succeed, hardly one really knows Me.
Lesson: Among Yogis, who strive for perfection in metaphysical knowledge, hardly a few succeed to know the Truth Absolute.

Subject: Higher and Lower Knowledge
भूमिरापोऽनलो वायुः खं मनो बुद्धिरेव च।
अहंकार इतीयं मे भिन्ना प्रकृतिरष्टधा॥७-४॥
bhūmirāpo’nalo vāyuḥ khaṁ mano buddhireva ca|
ahaṁkāra itīyaṁ me bhinnā prakṛtiraṣṭadhā||7-4||
The mind, intellect, ego, earth, water, fire, air, ether, are the eight-fold division of my Nature (Prakriti);
अपरेयमितस्त्वन्यां प्रकृतिं विद्धि मे पराम्।
जीवभूतां महाबाहो ययेदं धार्यते जगत्॥७-५॥
apareyamitastvanyāṁ prakṛtiṁ viddhi me parām|
jīvabhūtāṁ mahābāho yayedaṁ dhāryate jagat||7-5||
This is My Lower Nature (material manifestation).Know My other and Superior Nature (the life element) which sustains this entire universe, O Mighty-armed!
एतद्योनीनि भूतानि सर्वाणीत्युपधारय।
अहं कृत्स्नस्य जगतः प्रभवः प्रलयस्तथा॥७-६॥
etadyonīni bhūtāni sarvāṇītyupadhāraya|
ahaṁ kṛtsnasya jagataḥ prabhavaḥ pralayastathā||7-6||
Know that all are born from these two; and I am the origin of the entire universe (original source of the universe) and its dissolution as well.
मत्तः परतरं नान्यत्किंचिदस्ति धनंजय।
मयि सर्वमिदं प्रोतं सूत्रे मणिगणा इव॥७-७॥
mattaḥ parataraṁ nānyatkiṁcidasti dhanaṁjaya|
mayi sarvamidaṁ protaṁ sūtre maṇigaṇā iva||7-7||
There is nothing, what so ever, higher than Me, O Dhananjaya! All that is here is strung on Me as bunch of gems on a string.
Lesson: The knowledge is of two kinds: lower and   higher. The lower knowledge refers to the unconscious or manifested world (world of matter or nature) which is constituted by an eight-fold division comprising the mind, intellect, ego, earth, water, fire, air and ether. The higher knowledge refers to the conscious nature by which the entire universe is upheld. The unconscious (material) world is the manifestation of the Supreme. The latter is the source of origin and dissolution of the manifested world. Nothing is higher than the Supreme.

Subject: The all Pervading Supreme
रसोऽहमप्सु कौन्तेय प्रभास्मि शशिसूर्ययोः।
प्रणवः सर्ववेदेषु शब्दः खे पौरुषं नृषु॥७-८॥
raso’hamapsu kaunteya prabhāsmi śaśisūryayoḥ|
praṇavaḥ sarvavedeṣu śabdaḥ khe pauruṣaṁ nṛṣu||7-8||
I am the flavour in the water; O Son of Kunti! I am the radiance in the moon and the sun; I am the one syllable Aum in all the Vedas; I am the sound in the ether and virility in men.
पुण्यो गन्धः पृथिव्यां च तेजश्चास्मि विभावसौ।
जीवनं सर्वभूतेषु तपश्चास्मि तपस्विषु॥७-९॥
puṇyo gandhaḥ pṛthivyāṁ ca tejaścāsmi vibhāvasau|
jīvanaṁ sarvabhūteṣu tapaścāsmi tapasviṣu||7-9||
I am the sweet (sacred) fragrance in earth and the heat in fire; I am the life in all living beings and the austerity (penance) in ascetics.
बीजं मां सर्वभूतानां विद्धि पार्थ सनातनम्।
बुद्धिर्बुद्धिमतामस्मि तेजस्तेजस्विनामहम्॥७-१०॥
bījaṁ māṁ sarvabhūtānāṁ viddhi pārtha sanātanam|
buddhirbuddhimatāmasmi tejastejasvināmaham||7-10||
Consider Me, O Partha, the primeval seed of all beings; I am the intelligence of the intelligent and the brilliance of the brilliant.
बलं बलवतां चाहं कामरागविवर्जितम्।
धर्माविरुद्धो भूतेषु कामोऽस्मि भरतर्षभ॥७-११।
balaṁ balavatāṁ cāhaṁ kāmarāgavivarjitam|
dharmāviruddho bhūteṣu kāmo’smi bharatarṣabha||7-11|
I am the strength of the strong who is devoid of attachment and passion.In all living beings, I am the religion-abound Kama (principle based sexuality), O Best among the Bharatas!
ये चैव सात्त्विका भावा राजसास्तामसाश्च ये।
मत्त एवेति तान्विद्धि न त्वहं तेषु ते मयि॥७-१२॥
ye caiva sāttvikā bhāvā rājasāstāmasāśca ye|
matta eveti tānviddhi na tvahaṁ teṣu te mayi||7-12||
Consider that all entities, what so ever is born of (Gunas / constituent qualities like) Sattva /Sat (goodness), Rajas/Raj (passion) Tamas /Tam (inertia /ignorance) evolve from Me alone. But, I do not exist in them (Gunas), they are in Me.
Lesson:  The  Supreme Self, all pervading, activates the eight-fold division of the lower nature which is influenced by the three constituent qualities (Gunas).All evolve from, and depend on Him (the Supreme – Self).  All (beings/creatures) are subject to Him; He to none.

Subject: The Three-fold Constituent Qualities of Nature
त्रिभिर्गुणमयैर्भावैरेभिः सर्वमिदं जगत्।
मोहितं नाभिजानाति मामेभ्यः परमव्ययम्॥७-१३॥
tribhirguṇamayairbhāvairebhiḥ sarvamidaṁ jagat|
mohitaṁ nābhijānāti māmebhyaḥ paramavyayam||7-13||
Deluded by the nature (temperaments) of the objects composed of the three- fold constituent qualities (Gunas), the entire world does not know Me who is Imperishable (Eternal) and the one who is beyond the constituent qualities (Gunaateet).
दैवी ह्येषा गुणमयी मम माया दुरत्यया।
मामेव ये प्रपद्यन्ते मायामेतां तरन्ति ते॥७-१४॥
daivī hyeṣā guṇamayī mama māyā duratyayā|
māmeva ye prapadyante māyāmetāṁ taranti te||7-14||
It is verily difficult to overcome My Divine- illusion (Maayaa), composed of the three-fold qualities. They alone cross it over comfortably, who take refuge in Me.
न मां दुष्कृतिनो मूढाः प्रपद्यन्ते नराधमाः।
माययापहृतज्ञाना आसुरं भावमाश्रिताः॥७-१५॥
na māṁ duṣkṛtino mūḍhāḥ prapadyante narādhamāḥ|
māyayāpahṛtajñānā āsuraṁ bhāvamāśritāḥ||7-15||
The evil doers who are ignorant (foolish) and who are the lowest of men do not take refuge in Me. They follow the path of demon whose intellect has been carried away by their own illusion (Maayaa).
Lesson: The Nature, composed of three qualities, fascinates and deludes every one. The deluded fail to know the Supreme and to over come their delusion. They cannot discriminate between the good and evil and tread a wrong path. Those engaged in the pursuit of the Absolute, with devotion, alone follow the path of Realization.

Subject: The Virtuous
चतुर्विधा भजन्ते मां जनाः सुकृतिनोऽर्जुन।
आर्तो जिज्ञासुरर्थार्थी ज्ञानी च भरतर्षभ॥७-१६॥
caturvidhā bhajante māṁ janāḥ sukṛtino’rjuna|
ārto jijñāsurarthārthī jñānī ca bharatarṣabha||7-16||
O Arjuna, Best among the Bharat Dynasty, four types of virtuous take refuge in Me (worship or seek the Supreme): the distressed, the seeker of wealth, the inquisitive (seeker of knowledge) and the wise (one who knows the Absolute One).
Lesson: Four types of virtuous people seek the Supreme-the distressed, the seeker of wealth, the knower of the Self, the knower of the Truth Absolute.

Subject: Best Among the Virtuous
तेषां ज्ञानी नित्ययुक्त एकभक्तिर्विशिष्यते।
प्रियो हि ज्ञानिनोऽत्यर्थमहं स च मम प्रियः॥७-१७॥
teṣāṁ jñānī nityayukta ekabhaktirviśiṣyate|
priyo hi jñānino’tyarthamahaṁ sa ca mama priyaḥ||7-17||
Among these, excels the wise who is ever engaged in Me with single-minded devotion. For, I am extremely dear to the wise, and the wise is dear to Me.
उदाराः सर्व एवैते ज्ञानी त्वात्मैव मे मतम्।
आस्थितः स हि युक्तात्मा मामेवानुत्तमां गतिम्॥७-१८॥
udārāḥ sarva evaite jñānī tvātmaiva me matam|
āsthitaḥ sa hi yuktātmā māmevānuttamāṁ gatim||7-18||
All these (seekers)are noble indeed, but I hold the wise as My very self: because he is ever established in Me with a steady mind; having Me as the Supreme Goal (except Self-Realization, he has no other desire).
बहूनां जन्मनामन्ते ज्ञानवान्मां प्रपद्यते।
वासुदेवः सर्वमिति स महात्मा सुदुर्लभः॥७-१९॥
bahūnāṁ janmanāmante jñānavānmāṁ prapadyate|
vāsudevaḥ sarvamiti sa mahātmā sudurlabhaḥ||7-19||
At the end of many births, the wise who take refuge in Me, realizes that all this indeed is (a manifestation of) Vasudsva (the Supreme Self / Brahman). Such a great soul is very rare.
Lesson: The best among the virtuous is he who is steadily engaged in the Supreme with single-minded devotion. Such a rare soul indeed is a form of the Supreme-Self, as he has no other desire except to realize the Truth Absolute.

Subject: Desireful Worship
कामैस्तैस्तैर्हृतज्ञानाः प्रपद्यन्तेऽन्यदेवताः।
तं तं नियममास्थाय प्रकृत्या नियताः स्वया॥७-२०॥
kāmaistaistairhṛtajñānāḥ prapadyante’nyadevatāḥ|
taṁ taṁ niyamamāsthāya prakṛtyā niyatāḥ svayā||7-20||
Led by their (karmic) impressions (samskaaras), they worship other gods and follow a variety of rules (rites /rituals) whose knowledge has been carried away by a variety of desires.
Lesson: Impelled by their intense desires, the ignorant practice a variety of rituals and worship a variety of gods only to fulfill their desires.

Subject: Worship with Reverence
यो यो यां यां तनुं भक्तः श्रद्धयार्चितुमिच्छति।
तस्य तस्याचलां श्रद्धां तामेव विदधाम्यहम्॥७-२१॥
yo yo yāṁ yāṁ tanuṁ bhaktaḥ śraddhayārcitumicchati|
tasya tasyācalāṁ śraddhāṁ tāmeva vidadhāmyaham||7-21||
Which ever deity any devotee wants to worship with faith, I make his faith steady. (I make his faith steady in the same deity).
स तया श्रद्धया युक्तस्तस्याराधनमीहते।
लभते च ततः कामान्मयैवः विहितान्हितान्॥७-२२॥
sa tayā śraddhayā yuktastasyārādhanamīhate|
labhate ca tataḥ kāmānmayaivaḥ vihitānhitān||7-22||
Endowed with that faith he endeavours to worship the same deity and from that he gets his desires fulfilled. All this indeed is ordained by Me alone.
Lesson: All forms are of the Supreme alone. Their worship, with reverence, is the worship of the Supreme who alone accords all rewards. Worship with reverence does not go to waste. (Great persons do not repudiate popular practices of worship or faith).

Subject: Fruit of Desireful Worship
अन्तवत्तु फलं तेषां तद्भवत्यल्पमेधसाम्।
देवान्देवयजो यान्ति मद्भक्ता यान्ति मामपि॥७-२३॥
antavattu phalaṁ teṣāṁ tadbhavatyalpamedhasām|
devāndevayajo yānti madbhaktā yānti māmapi||7-23||
The fruit earned by the persons of less intelligent (lesser knowledge) is perishable. The devotees of the deities (Devas) go to the deities, but My devotees come to Me.
Lesson: The ignorant worship various deities to fulfill their desires (satisfy sensual pleasures) and achieve perishable material gains, while the wise are devoted to the Absolute One;they attain the highest state of Realization.

Subject: Implications of Ignorance
अव्यक्तं व्यक्तिमापन्नं मन्यन्ते मामबुद्धयः।
परं भावमजानन्तो ममाव्ययमनुत्तमम्॥७-२४॥
avyaktaṁ vyaktimāpannaṁ manyante māmabuddhayaḥ|
paraṁ bhāvamajānanto mamāvyayamanuttamam||7-24||
Not knowing My superior, imperishable and Supreme nature, the unwise think of Me, the Unmanifested (transcendental, unconceivable form; invincible to physical sight), as having manifested (as being embodied).
नाहं प्रकाशः सर्वस्य योगमायासमावृतः।
मूढोऽयं नाभिजानाति लोको मामजमव्ययम्॥७-२५॥
nāhaṁ prakāśaḥ sarvasya yogamāyāsamāvṛtaḥ|
mūḍho’yaṁ nābhijānāti loko māmajamavyayam||7-25||
Veiled by My divine illusion (Yoga – Maya), I am not revealed to all (ignorant). The deluded world does not know Me, the Unborn, the Imperishable (do not understand My Unborn, Eternal, Imperishable and Transcendental Personality).
वेदाहं समतीतानि वर्तमानानि चार्जुन।
भविष्याणि च भूतानि मां तु वेद न कश्चन॥७-२६॥
vedāhaṁ samatītāni vartamānāni cārjuna|
bhaviṣyāṇi ca bhūtāni māṁ tu veda na kaścana||7-26||
I know all the beings born in the past, living in the present and to be born in the future; but no one (the deluded) knows Me , O Arjuna!
इच्छाद्वेषसमुत्थेन द्वन्द्वमोहेन भारत।
सर्वभूतानि संमोहं सर्गे यान्ति परंतप॥७-२७॥
icchādveṣasamutthena dvandvamohena bhārata|
sarvabhūtāni saṁmohaṁ sarge yānti paraṁtapa||7-27||
O Bharat, by the delusion of the dualities (like pleasure and pain, success and failure), born of desire and aversion, all beings are deluded from birth, O Scorcher of Foes.
Lesson: The ever shining Supreme is Unborn, Eternal, Imperishable and Transcendental. He is invincible to physical sight. Not bounded of time, the Supreme is all – knowing and omniscient. Only the seers of Self – realization could perceive Him, not the worldly beings who are deluded by three-fold constituent qualities. All beings are subject   to delusion and ignorance at birth, as all suffer from the dualities born of delusion and aversion.

Subject: Purpose of Wisdom
येषां त्वन्तगतं पापं जनानां पुण्यकर्मणाम्।
ते द्वन्द्वमोहनिर्मुक्ता भजन्ते मां दृढव्रताः॥७-२८॥
yeṣāṁ tvantagataṁ pāpaṁ janānāṁ puṇyakarmaṇām|
te dvandvamohanirmuktā bhajante māṁ dṛḍhavratāḥ||7-28||
The man of virtuous deeds worship Me with a firm resolve whose sin has come to an end, who is free from the delusion of dualities.
Lesson: Wisdom leads to perfection after liberating the devotee from sin (ego) and dualities.

जरामरणमोक्षाय मामाश्रित्य यतन्ति ये।
ते ब्रह्म तद्विदुः कृत्स्नमध्यात्मं कर्म चाखिलम्॥७-२९॥
jarāmaraṇamokṣāya māmāśritya yatanti ye|
te brahma tadviduḥ kṛtsnamadhyātmaṁ karma cākhilam||7-29||
Taking refuge in Me, he attains Me who strives for liberation from old age and death, with full comprehension of the Supreme, the Self-in-dwelling and all about Action (Karma).
साधिभूताधिदैवं मां साधियज्ञं च ये विदुः।
प्रयाणकालेऽपि च मां ते विदुर्युक्तचेतसः॥७-३०॥
sādhibhūtādhidaivaṁ māṁ sādhiyajñaṁ ca ye viduḥ|
prayāṇakāle’pi ca māṁ te viduryuktacetasaḥ||7-30||
The stead-fast persons who know Me (Know the Brahman) that I am (the Brahman is) the basis of all: the world of objects;(Adhibhuta = mortal elements), of gods ( Adhideva = sense organs) and all sacrifices (Adhiyajana = Perceptions). They attain Me, even if they remember Me at the time of death.
Lesson: Knowledge leads to liberation from old age and death. Taking refuge in the Supreme, he who remembers Him, even at the time of his death that the Supreme (Brahman) is the basis of all, attains perfection with full comprehension of the Absolute, the Self-in-dwelling and action / Karma or Samskaaraa.

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