संन्यासं कर्मणां कृष्ण पुनर्योगं च शंससि।
यच्छ्रेय एतयोरेकं तन्मे ब्रूहि सुनिश्चितम्॥५-१॥
saṁnyāsaṁ karmaṇāṁ kṛṣṇa punaryogaṁ ca śaṁsasi|
yacchreya etayorekaṁ tanme brūhi suniścitam||5-1||
O Krishna, you talk about renunciation- of -action and again appreciate karma yoga (yoga-of –action). Tell me conclusively which of the two is better.
Lesson: The curiosity to know the truth increases with the increase in knowledge.
Lord Krishna said:
Subject: Superiority of Karma Yoga
संन्यासः कर्मयोगश्च निःश्रेयसकरावुभौ।
तयोस्तु कर्मसंन्यासात्कर्मयोगो विशिष्यते॥५-२॥
saṁnyāsaḥ karmayogaśca niḥśreyasakarāvubhau|
tayostu karmasaṁnyāsātkarmayogo viśiṣyate||5-2||
Both, the karma yoga the sanyas yoga (yoga of renunciation) are blissful. Superior of the two however, is karma yoga.
Lesson: Compared to renunciation of action, performance of action (duty) is better.
Subject: The Renounced (The Sanyasi)
ज्ञेयः स नित्यसंन्यासी यो न द्वेष्टि न काङ्क्षति।
निर्द्वन्द्वो हि महाबाहो सुखं बन्धात्प्रमुच्यते॥५-३॥
jñeyaḥ sa nityasaṁnyāsī yo na dveṣṭi na kāṅkṣati|
nirdvandvo hi mahābāho sukhaṁ bandhātpramucyate||5-3||
One who neither hates nor desires, should be known as a renounced (sanyasi). Free from all dualities, such a person, O Might-armed, is easily liberated from bondage.
Lesson: He who is devoid of desires and dualities (like passions and aversion) is known as a renounced (a sanyasi).
Subject: Action and Knowledge
साङ्ख्ययोगौ पृथग्बालाः प्रवदन्ति न पण्डिताः।
एकमप्यास्थितः सम्यगुभयोर्विन्दते फलम्॥५-४॥
sāṅkhyayogau pṛthagbālāḥ pravadanti na paṇḍitāḥ|
ekamapyāsthitaḥ samyagubhayorvindate phalam||5-4||
Only the ignorant differentiate between the karma yoga and sanyas yoga, not the learned. He who is established even in one (of the yogas) gets the result of both.
यत्साङ्ख्यैः प्राप्यते स्थानं तद्योगैरपि गम्यते।
एकं साङ्ख्यं च योगं च यः पश्यति स पश्यति॥५-५॥
yatsāṅkhyaiḥ prāpyate sthānaṁ tadyogairapi gamyate|
ekaṁ sāṅkhyaṁ ca yogaṁ ca yaḥ paśyati sa paśyati||5-5||
The karma yogis also attain the same position which is attained by the sanyasis . He, who sees sanyas yoga and karma yoga as one, really sees.
Lesson: Action and knowledge (karma and sanyas yoga) are not contradictory to each other. Either of the two has the same effectiveness.
Subject: The Renounced
संन्यासस्तु महाबाहो दुःखमाप्तुमयोगतः।
योगयुक्तो मुनिर्ब्रह्म नचिरेणाधिगच्छति॥५-६॥
saṁnyāsastu mahābāho duḥkhamāptumayogataḥ|
yogayukto munirbrahma nacireṇādhigacchati||5-6||
O Mighty –armed, attaining renunciation without (karma) yoga however is difficult. Only those sages (intellectuals) attain the Supreme-Being (Brahman) who are engaged in (karma) yoga.
Lesson: Without performing action none of the renounced can attain the Supreme.
Subject: Karma Yogi
योगयुक्तो विशुद्धात्मा विजितात्मा जितेन्द्रियः।
सर्वभूतात्मभूतात्मा कुर्वन्नपि न लिप्यते॥५-७॥
yogayukto viśuddhātmā vijitātmā jitendriyaḥ|
sarvabhūtātmabhūtātmā kurvannapi na lipyate||5-7||
He is not tainted (not attached), though engaged in (karma) yoga, who perceives the same Supreme –power in all beings, whose heart is pure, self-controlled and who has conquered senses.
Lesson: Having controlled his body and senses who performs his duty with pure mind and perceives the same Supreme- power in all beings is known as unattached(karma ) yogi .
Subject: The Knower of Truth
नैव किंचित्करोमीति युक्तो मन्येत तत्त्ववित्।
इन्द्रियाणीन्द्रियार्थेषु वर्तन्त इति धारयन्॥५-९॥
naiva kiṁcitkaromīti yukto manyeta tattvavit|
indriyāṇīndriyārtheṣu vartanta iti dhārayan||5-9||
Though seeing, hearing, touching, smelling, eating, moving, sleeping, breathing, speaking, receiving, evacuating, opening and closing the eyes, the yogi understands that he does nothing at all. He fully realizes that it is the senses which move among the senses.
Lesson: He alone is the knower of the Truth who understands that the senses are performing in accordance with their objects and he himself does nothing at all.
Subject: The Sinless
ब्रह्मण्याधाय कर्माणि सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा करोति यः।
लिप्यते न स पापेन पद्मपत्रमिवाम्भसा॥५-१०॥
brahmaṇyādhāya karmāṇi saṅgaṁ tyaktvā karoti yaḥ|
lipyate na sa pāpena padmapatramivāmbhasā||5-10||
Being unattached (to the fruits of action), he who performs actions offering them to the Supreme -Being is not affected by sin, as the lotus leaf remains unaffected by the water.
Lesson: He is sinless who remains unattached (does not have any sense of doer ship) while performing action (his duty).
Subject: Karma Yogi
कायेन मनसा बुद्ध्या केवलैरिन्द्रियैरपि।
योगिनः कर्म कुर्वन्ति सङ्गं त्यक्त्वात्मशुद्धये॥५-११॥
kāyena manasā buddhyā kevalairindriyairapi|
yoginaḥ karma kurvanti saṅgaṁ tyaktvātmaśuddhaye||5-11||
Having abandoned attachment, the (karma) yogi performs actions by body, mind, intellect and senses only for inner (self) purification.
Lesson: Using his gross body and senses, a karma yogi acts only for self-purification.
Subject: Man of Desire less Action
युक्तःकर्मफलं त्यक्त्वा शान्तिमाप्नोति नैष्ठिकीम्।
अयुक्तः कामकारेण फले सक्तो निबध्यते॥५-१२॥
yuktaḥkarmaphalaṁ tyaktvā śāntimāpnoti naiṣṭhikīm|
ayuktaḥ kāmakāreṇa phale sakto nibadhyate||5-12||
A Karma Yogi (man of desire less action) attains steady peace by abandoning the fruits of action. Bounded is he who, impelled by desires and attachment to fruits, does desireful action
Lesson: Doer of desire less action attains steady peace. He who is attached to fruits of action remains bounded by desires.
Subject: The Bliss Internal
सर्वकर्माणि मनसा संन्यस्यास्ते सुखं वशी।
नवद्वारे पुरे देही नैव कुर्वन्न कारयन्॥५-१३॥
sarvakarmāṇi manasā saṁnyasyāste sukhaṁ vaśī|
navadvāre pure dehī naiva kurvanna kārayan||5-13||
Having mentally renounced all actions and completely self- controlled, the Embodied dwells happily in the city of nine gates, neither performing nor getting action done by others ( by mind or subtle body).
Lesson: In the state of workless ness (when mind or the subtle body is free from all sort of actions), the Self -Indwelling enjoys bliss, even in the living body enveloped by senses, when ego-centric- desireful actions are abandoned.
Subject: Karma and Constituent Qualities
न कर्तृत्वं न कर्माणि लोकस्य सृजति प्रभुः।
न कर्मफलसंयोगं स्वभावस्तु प्रवर्तते॥५-१४॥
na kartṛtvaṁ na karmāṇi lokasya sṛjati prabhuḥ|
na karmaphalasaṁyogaṁ svabhāvastu pravartate||5-14||
The Supreme-Being neither creates the urge for action, nor the sense of its doer ship, nor the attachment to the fruits of action. This all is accomplished by the `Nature` (Constituent Qualities).
Lesson: Man performs action in accordance with his constituent qualities. Neither actions nor their doer ship is preordained.
नादत्ते कस्यचित्पापं न चैव सुकृतं विभुः।
अज्ञानेनावृतं ज्ञानं तेन मुह्यन्ति जन्तवः॥५-१५॥
nādatte kasyacitpāpaṁ na caiva sukṛtaṁ vibhuḥ|
ajñānenāvṛtaṁ jñānaṁ tena muhyanti jantavaḥ||5-15||
The all Pervaded Impersonal neither receives sinful actions, nor even the virtuous one. As the knowledge is enveloped by ignorance, all beings are deluded and commit evils.
Lesson: The delusion of good and evil deeds arises due to ignorance.
Subject: Transcendental Knowledge
ज्ञानेन तु तदज्ञानं येषां नाशितमात्मनः।
तेषामादित्यवज्ज्ञानं प्रकाशयति तत्परम्॥५-१६॥
jñānena tu tadajñānaṁ yeṣāṁ nāśitamātmanaḥ|
teṣāmādityavajjñānaṁ prakāśayati tatparam||5-16||
But, the Supreme is revealed to them, like the things (objects of the world) are revealed by the rise of the sun, whose ignorance is destroyed by the knowledge of the Self (transcendental knowledge).
Lesson: Transcendental knowledge destroys ignorance and leads the seeker after Truth to realize the Supreme (the Absolute Reality).
Subject: The Supreme Position
They achieve `That` (the Supreme position), having their sins (ignorance) destroyed by (transcendental) knowledge who absorb their mind and intellect in `That` (the Supreme); who are established in `That` (the Supreme); and whose avowed goal is to attain `That`.
Lesson: Abandoning ego, with the mind and intellect absorbed in the Supreme, achieve your avowed goal of attaining the Supreme knowledge (the Absolute Reality) to overcome ignorance.
विद्याविनयसंपन्ने ब्राह्मणे गवि हस्तिनि।
शुनि चैव श्वपाके च पण्डिताः समदर्शिनः॥५-१८॥
vidyāvinayasaṁpanne brāhmaṇe gavi hastini|
śuni caiva śvapāke ca paṇḍitāḥ samadarśinaḥ||5-18||
The wise, endowed with learning and humility, sees a Brahman, a cow, an elephant, a dog and an outcaste with even mind (equity).
Lesson: The wise treats all beings with equity and equanimity ( Perceiving the Supreme in all beings).
इहैव तैर्जितः सर्गो येषां साम्ये स्थितं मनः।
निर्दोषं हि समं ब्रह्म तस्माद् ब्रह्मणि ते स्थिताः॥५-१९॥
ihaiva tairjitaḥ sargo yeṣāṁ sāmye sthitaṁ manaḥ|
nirdoṣaṁ hi samaṁ brahma tasmād brahmaṇi te sthitāḥ||5-19||
Meaning : The even-minded conquer this world in their life time (they are liberated from the worldly bondage while living) and (regarded as) established in the Supreme (while living) because the Supreme is even – mind and spotless.
Lesson: Those who perceive all beings with even mind (equity), dwell in Brahman (the Absolute) while living in this world.
Subject: The Knower of the Supreme
न प्रहृष्येत्प्रियं प्राप्य नोद्विजेत्प्राप्य चाप्रियम्।
स्थिरबुद्धिरसंमूढो ब्रह्मविद् ब्रह्मणि स्थितः॥५-२०॥
na prahṛṣyetpriyaṁ prāpya nodvijetprāpya cāpriyam|
sthirabuddhirasaṁmūḍho brahmavid brahmaṇi sthitaḥ||5-20||
Established in the Supreme with steady intellect, the undeluded who has realized the Supreme, neither rejoices on achieving pleasant things, nor grieves on getting something unpleasent.
Lesson: On realizing the Absolute Reality, persons of stable intellect view the pleasant and unpleasant objects (pleasure and grief) with equanimity.
Subject: Imperishable Bliss
बाह्यस्पर्शेष्वसक्तात्मा विन्दत्यात्मनि यत्सुखम्।
स ब्रह्मयोगयुक्तात्मा सुखमक्षयमश्नुते॥५-२१॥
bāhyasparśeṣvasaktātmā vindatyātmani yatsukham|
sa brahmayogayuktātmā sukhamakṣayamaśnute||5-21||
He who is established in the Supreme enjoys internal pleasure and imperishable bliss as he is not attached to external (worldly) objects /sensual pleasures).
Lesson: The Supreme (transcendental) knowledge leads to imperishable bliss.
Subject: Sensual Pleasure
ये हि संस्पर्शजा भोगा दुःखयोनय एव ते।
आद्यन्तवन्तः कौन्तेय न तेषु रमते बुधः॥५-२२॥
ye hi saṁsparśajā bhogā duḥkhayonaya eva te|
ādyantavantaḥ kaunteya na teṣu ramate budhaḥ||5-22||
All sensual pleasures are undoubtedly the causes of pain. These are transient (have a beginning and an end), O Son of Kunti, the wise therefore, do not rejoice in sensual pleasures.
Lesson: Do not indulge in sensual pleasures (worldly objects) as these are transient and cause grief.
शक्नोतीहैव यः सोढुं प्राक्षरीरविमोक्षणात्।
कामक्रोधोद्भवं वेगं स युक्तः स सुखी नरः॥५-२३॥
śaknotīhaiva yaḥ soḍhuṁ prākṣarīravimokṣaṇāt|
kāmakrodhodbhavaṁ vegaṁ sa yuktaḥ sa sukhī naraḥ||5-23||
He is a yogi ; he is happy, here in this world who has ability to resist the impulse of desire and anger before giving up
Lesson: Like a yogi, enjoy the happiness of liberation while living in this world by resisting the impulse of desire and anger.
Subject: Knowledge of the Self and the Supreme Knowledge
स योगी ब्रह्मनिर्वाणं ब्रह्मभूतोऽधिगच्छति॥५-२४॥
sa yogī brahmanirvāṇaṁ brahmabhūto’dhigacchati||5-24||
He who rejoices within, who is happy within, who is luminous within (has Self-Realization) that yogi having attained the absolute freedom, attains the beatitude of the Supreme (Braham Nirvana).
Lesson: With inner happiness and enlightenment (Self-Knowledge), a yogi attains absolute freedom and identifies himself with the Absolute.
Subject: Brahma Nirvana (Absolute Freedom)
लभन्ते ब्रह्मनिर्वाणमृषयः क्षीणकल्मषाः।
छिन्नद्वैधा यतात्मानः सर्वभूतहिते रताः॥५-२५॥
labhante brahmanirvāṇamṛṣayaḥ kṣīṇakalmaṣāḥ|
chinnadvaidhā yatātmānaḥ sarvabhūtahite ratāḥ||5-25||
The sages whose sins have been destroyed, who are self-controlled and who are engaged in the welfare of all beings attain the beatitude of the Supreme (Brahma Nirvana).
Lesson: That knower of the Supreme knowledge attains Braham Nirvana whose sins and doubts have been destroyed and who is devoted to the welfare of all beings.
कामक्रोधवियुक्तानां यतीनां यतचेतसाम्।
अभितो ब्रह्मनिर्वाणं वर्तते विदितात्मनाम्॥५-२६॥
kāmakrodhaviyuktānāṁ yatīnāṁ yatacetasām|
abhito brahmanirvāṇaṁ vartate viditātmanām||5-26||
Brahma Nirvana prevails for those saintly persons from all sides, even while living and after giving up the body (after death), who being devoid of desires and anger have conquered their mind (thoughts) and identified with the Absolute (attained Self-realization)
Lesson: The knower of the Self who has practised self control (yoga) having conquered anger and desires, attains Braham Nirvana.
स्पर्शान्कृत्वा बहिर्बाह्यांश्चक्षुश्चैवान्तरे भ्रुवोः।
प्राणापानौ समौ कृत्वा नासाभ्यन्तरचारिणौ॥५-२७॥
विगतेच्छाभयक्रोधो यः सदा मुक्त एव सः॥५-२८॥
sparśānkṛtvā bahirbāhyāṁścakṣuścaivāntare bhruvoḥ|
prāṇāpānau samau kṛtvā nāsābhyantaracāriṇau||5-27||
vigatecchābhayakrodho yaḥ sadā mukta eva saḥ||5-28||
Liberated is the sage poised to Braham Nirvana, free from desires, fears and anger, who leaves all external (sense) objects outside, keeps his eyes fixed between the two eye brows, suspends (in equanimity) inward and outward breaths within the nostrils and thus controls the sense-organs, mind and intellect.
Lesson: A yogi, liberated from desires, fears and anger, who practices yoga having controlled his senses, mind and intellect is poised to Braham Nirvana.
Subject: Eternal Peace
भोक्तारं यज्ञतपसां सर्वलोकमहेश्वरम्।
सुहृदं सर्वभूतानां ज्ञात्वा मां शान्तिमृच्छति॥५-२९॥
bhoktāraṁ yajñatapasāṁ sarvalokamaheśvaram|
suhṛdaṁ sarvabhūtānāṁ jñātvā māṁ śāntimṛcchati||5-29||
He attains eternal peace, who knows Me as the beneficiary of all sacrifices (yajnas) and austerities, as the Supreme Lord of the worlds and the benefactor of all beings.
Lesson: He gets eternal peace who knows that all sacrifices (yajnas) and austerities go to the Supreme Lord and He alone is the benefactor of all beings.