अष्टादशोऽध्यायः — मोक्षसंन्यास योगः

अर्जुन उवाच।
arjuna uvāca|
Arjuna said:

Subject: Renunciation and Renounced Order
संन्यासस्य महाबाहो तत्त्वमिच्छामि वेदितुम्।
त्यागस्य च हृषीकेश पृथक्केशिनिषूदन॥१८-१॥
saṁnyāsasya mahābāho tattvamicchāmi veditum|
tyāgasya ca hṛṣīkeśa pṛthakkeśiniṣūdana||18-1||
O Mighty-armed! O Hrishikesh! I wish to know severally, the essence of ‘Renunciation’ (Tyaga) and that of the ‘Renounced Order’ (Sannyasa), O Slayer of Kesi!
Lesson: Before establishing in the yoga of liberation one should know explicitly the essence or truth about renunciation and the renounced order of life.

श्रीभगवानुवाच।
śrībhagavānuvāca|
Lord Krishna said:

Subject: Renunciation and Renounced Order
काम्यानां कर्मणां न्यासं संन्यासं कवयो विदुः।
सर्वकर्मफलत्यागं प्राहुस्त्यागं विचक्षणाः॥१८-२॥
kāmyānāṁ karmaṇāṁ nyāsaṁ saṁnyāsaṁ kavayo viduḥ|
sarvakarmaphalatyāgaṁ prāhustyāgaṁ vicakṣaṇāḥ||18-2||
Some wise understand `renounced order ` as the abandonment of desireful action; other thinkers say that the abandonment of the fruits of all action is `renunciation`.
त्याज्यं दोषवदित्येके कर्म प्राहुर्मनीषिणः।
यज्ञदानतपःकर्म न त्याज्यमिति चापरे॥१८-३॥
tyājyaṁ doṣavadityeke karma prāhurmanīṣiṇaḥ|
yajñadānatapaḥkarma na tyājyamiti cāpare||18-3||
Some sages say that all actions be abandoned as these contain evils, while other wise men say that acts of sacrifice, charity and austerity should not be abandoned.
Lesson: Opinions differ on  renunciation and renounced order i.e.(1)Abandonment of desireful action is Renounced order,(2)Abandonment of the fruits of action is `Renunciation`,(3)  Abandonment  all actions is renunciation as all actions contain evils,(4) Renunciation does not include abandonment of acts like sacrifice, charity and austerity.

Subject: Description of Renunciation
निश्चयं शृणु मे तत्र त्यागे भरतसत्तम।
त्यागो हि पुरुषव्याघ्र त्रिविधः सम्प्रकीर्तितः॥१८-४॥
niścayaṁ śṛṇu me tatra tyāge bharatasattama|
tyāgo hi puruṣavyāghra trividhaḥ samprakīrtitaḥ||18-4||
Renunciation is said to be of three kinds (Sattwic, Rajasic, Tamasic), O Best of the Bharats! You listen My conclusive opinion about this renunciation, O Best of Men!
यज्ञदानतपःकर्म न त्याज्यं कार्यमेव तत्।
यज्ञो दानं तपश्चैव पावनानि मनीषिणाम्॥१८-५॥
yajñadānatapaḥkarma na tyājyaṁ kāryameva tat|
yajño dānaṁ tapaścaiva pāvanāni manīṣiṇām||18-5||
Acts of sacrifice, charity and austerity should not be abandoned. These should verily be performed because sacrifice, charity and austerity purify even the men of intellect.
एतान्यपि तु कर्माणि सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा फलानि च।
कर्तव्यानीति मे पार्थ निश्चितं मतमुत्तमम्॥१८-६॥
etānyapi tu karmāṇi saṅgaṁ tyaktvā phalāni ca|
kartavyānīti me pārtha niścitaṁ matamuttamam||18-6||
But, even these (sacrifice charity and austerity) and all other obligatory actions should be performed without attachment and without longing for fruits. This, O Partha, is My conclusive and best opinion.
Lesson: Never abandon sacrifice, charity and austerity. These three along with other obligatory acts should be done without attachment and without any desire for fruits.

Subject:  Renunciation and Qualities
नियतस्य तु संन्यासः कर्मणो नोपपद्यते।
मोहात्तस्य परित्यागस्तामसः परिकीर्तितः॥१८-७॥
niyatasya tu saṁnyāsaḥ karmaṇo nopapadyate|
mohāttasya parityāgastāmasaḥ parikīrtitaḥ||18-7||
It is not proper to renounce obligatory action (prescribed duty). The abandonment of such actions, because of delusion, is said to be `Tamasic Renunciation`
दुःखमित्येव यत्कर्म कायक्लेशभयात्त्यजेत्।
स कृत्वा राजसं त्यागं नैव त्यागफलं लभेत्॥१८-८॥
duḥkhamityeva yatkarma kāyakleśabhayāttyajet|
sa kṛtvā rājasaṁ tyāgaṁ naiva tyāgaphalaṁ labhet||18-8||
He who renounces obligatory actions with the fear that the performance of duty causes pain and bodily trouble, though performing Rajasic Renunciation gets no fruit of `Renunciation`
कार्यमित्येव यत्कर्म नियतं क्रियतेऽर्जुन।
सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा फलं चैव स त्यागः सात्त्विको मतः॥१८-९॥
kāryamityeva yatkarma niyataṁ kriyate’rjuna|
saṅgaṁ tyaktvā phalaṁ caiva sa tyāgaḥ sāttviko mataḥ||18-9||
Whatever obligatory or prescribed act is performed as a duty, without attachment and with no longing for fruits, that alone is regarded as` Sattwic Renunciation`
Lesson: Abandonment of duty, due to delusion is Tamasic Renunciation. It is Rajasic when done for fear of pain or bodily trouble. Performance of all obligatory acts, without attachment and with no desire for fruits, is known as `Sattwic Renunciation`

Subject: The Renuncient (Tyaagi)
न द्वेष्ट्यकुशलं कर्म कुशले नानुषज्जते।
त्यागी सत्त्वसमाविष्टो मेधावी छिन्नसंशयः॥१८-१०॥
na dveṣṭyakuśalaṁ karma kuśale nānuṣajjate|
tyāgī sattvasamāviṣṭo medhāvī chinnasaṁśayaḥ||18-10||
He alone is renuncient who is imbibed with Sattwic qualities and wisdom; who neither hates inauspicious (disagreeable) acts, nor is he attached to auspicious (agreeable) one. Such a man is free from all doubts.
Lesson: The renuncient is one who is endowed with Sattwic qualities and intellect; who is unattached to auspicious act (acts prescribed by the scriptures);who does not hate the inauspioucious (disagreeable) acts; and who is free from all doubts and misgivings.

Subject: The Renuncient
न हि देहभृता शक्यं त्यक्तुं कर्माण्यशेषतः।
यस्तु कर्मफलत्यागी स त्यागीत्यभिधीयते॥१८-११॥
na hi dehabhṛtā śakyaṁ tyaktuṁ karmāṇyaśeṣataḥ|
yastu karmaphalatyāgī sa tyāgītyabhidhīyate||18-11||
It is not possible for any embodied- being to renounce all actions in their entirety. (Therefore) he alone is a renuncient who renounces the fruits of action.
Lesson: The renuncient is he who renounces the fruits of action.

Subject: Fruits of Action
अनिष्टमिष्टं मिश्रं च त्रिविधं कर्मणः फलम्।
भवत्यत्यागिनां प्रेत्य न तु संन्यासिनां क्वचित्॥१८-१२॥
aniṣṭamiṣṭaṁ miśraṁ ca trividhaṁ karmaṇaḥ phalam|
bhavatyatyāgināṁ pretya na tu saṁnyāsināṁ kvacit||18-12||
Those who do not renounce (the longing for fruits) get three-fold fruits of action, after (their) death: good, bad and the mixed one. But, the renuncient does not (he is not affected by the fruits of action).
Lesson: Those who perform desirefull action, after their death, are born in good, bad or mixed womb. The yogi of desire less action however, is free from the bondage of action. His good or bad results of action are destroyed (dissolved) in this life alone.

Subject: Cause of Action
पंचैतानि महाबाहो कारणानि निबोध मे।
साङ्ख्ये कृतान्ते प्रोक्तानि सिद्धये सर्वकर्मणाम्॥१८-१३॥
paṁcaitāni mahābāho kāraṇāni nibodha me|
sāṅkhye kṛtānte proktāni siddhaye sarvakarmaṇām||18-13||
Listen from Me, O Mighty-armed, the five causes of action described in the sankhya (scriptures or Upanishad).
अधिष्ठानं तथा कर्ता करणं च पृथग्विधम्।
विविधाश्च पृथक्चेष्टा दैवं चैवात्र पंचमम्॥१८-१४॥
adhiṣṭhānaṁ tathā kartā karaṇaṁ ca pṛthagvidham|
vividhāśca pṛthakceṣṭā daivaṁ caivātra paṁcamam||18-14||
The body (seat of all organs), the doer (ego), various organs of perceptions and action, various functions of organs of action(including intellect or knowledge) and the fifth is known to be the supreme deity( destiny or samskara)
शरीरवाङ्मनोभिर्यत्कर्म प्रारभते नरः।
न्याय्यं वा विपरीतं वा पंचैते तस्य हेतवः॥१८-१५॥
śarīravāṅmanobhiryatkarma prārabhate naraḥ|
nyāyyaṁ vā viparītaṁ vā paṁcaite tasya hetavaḥ||18-15||
These are the five contributory causes of whatever action, whether right or wrong, one performs with his body, mind and speech.
तत्रैवं सति कर्तारमात्मानं केवलं तु यः।
पश्यत्यकृतबुद्धित्वान्न स पश्यति दुर्मतिः॥१८-१६॥
tatraivaṁ sati kartāramātmānaṁ kevalaṁ tu yaḥ|
paśyatyakṛtabuddhitvānna sa paśyati durmatiḥ||18-16||
Notwithstanding this, he who regards the Absolute and Taintless- Self as the doer, because of his impure mind, that man of perverse understanding does not see the reality.
यस्य नाहंकृतो भावो बुद्धिर्यस्य न लिप्यते।
हत्वाऽपि स इमाँल्लोकान्न हन्ति न निबध्यते॥१८-१७॥
yasya nāhaṁkṛto bhāvo buddhiryasya na lipyate|
hatvā’pi sa imāllokānna hanti na nibadhyate||18-17||
Free from the sense of doership (egoism) whose mind is not absorbed in the worldly objects and activities (desire for fruits), even though he (as a warrior) slays all these people (his enemies), slays not; neither he is slayed, nor bonded (by his action)
Lesson: There are three kinds of action: physical, mental, vocal. These are because of: (a) body, (b) ego, (c) organs of action and perception, (d) functions of the organs of action and perception (inward and outward breath) (e) accumulated fruits of action of previous birth or destiny/sanskara Ignoring these causes, he who considers the Self-indwelling as the doer, fails to understand the reality or  the truth. (The Self is taintless. He activates all the instruments of action but does not act on His own. They alone know this Truth-Absolute who are liberated from the sense of doership and who are detached from worldly objects.)

Subject: The Basis of Action
ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं परिज्ञाता त्रिविधा कर्मचोदना।
करणं कर्म कर्तेति त्रिविधः कर्मसंग्रहः॥१८-१८॥
jñānaṁ jñeyaṁ parijñātā trividhā karmacodanā|
karaṇaṁ karma karteti trividhaḥ karmasaṁgrahaḥ||18-18||
The Knower (The Subject), Knowledge (about the object or matter) and the Knowable (the objective of knowledge; (real form of the object) are the three factors that inspire for action. The doer, the organs (of perception and action) and the act constitute the three-fold basis of action.
Lesson: An action is accomplished by a collective team of a doer, the organs of perception and action and the activities of the organs. The motivation of action arises from the objective of action, the knowledge and the subject who acts.

Subject: Types of Knowledge, Action and Doer
ज्ञानं कर्म च कर्ताच त्रिधैव गुणभेदतः।
प्रोच्यते गुणसङ्ख्याने यथावच्छृणु तान्यपि॥१८-१९॥
jñānaṁ karma ca kartāca tridhaiva guṇabhedataḥ|
procyate guṇasaṅkhyāne yathāvacchṛṇu tānyapi||18-19||
Based on the three-fold constituent qualities, the knowledge, action and the doer have been described in the science of sankhya as of three kinds; that too (you) listen clearly.
Lesson: As per the science of Sankhya or the philosophy of Gunas (constituent qualities), the Knowledge, Action and Doer have been defined / described according to three –fold constituent qualities.
Subject: Sattwic, Rajasic and Tamasic Knowledge
सर्वभूतेषु येनैकं भावमव्ययमीक्षते।
अविभक्तं विभक्तेषु तज्ज्ञानं विद्धि सात्त्विकम्॥१८-२०॥
sarvabhūteṣu yenaikaṁ bhāvamavyayamīkṣate|
avibhaktaṁ vibhakteṣu tajjñānaṁ viddhi sāttvikam||18-20||
Know that knowledge to be Sattwic by which one perceives the Imperishable-One as undivided in all the divided beings.
पृथक्त्वेन तु यज्ज्ञानं नानाभावान्पृथग्विधान्।
वेत्ति सर्वेषु भूतेषु तज्ज्ञानं विद्धि राजसम्॥१८-२१॥
pṛthaktvena tu yajjñānaṁ nānābhāvānpṛthagvidhān|
vetti sarveṣu bhūteṣu tajjñānaṁ viddhi rājasam||18-21||
Know that knowledge to be Rajasic by which one perceives in all beings a variety of entities separate from each other.
यत्तु कृत्स्नवदेकस्मिन्कार्ये सक्तमहैतुकम्।
अतत्त्वार्थवदल्पं च तत्तामसमुदाहृतम्॥१८-२२॥
yattu kṛtsnavadekasminkārye saktamahaitukam|
atattvārthavadalpaṁ ca tattāmasamudāhṛtam||18-22||
And that trivial knowledge, devoid of reality and reason, is said to be Tamasic by which one perceives the gross (physical) body all in all and becomes attached to it.
Lesson: The Sattwic knowledge enables a man to perceive the Imperishable and Indivisible- One as undivided in all the divided- beings. (He beholds an underlying unity among all beings who are divided into various forms and figures, with an understanding that in all the diverse living beings One Indivisible Supreme-Being is manifested). With Rajasic knowledge, on the other hand, one perceives different beings as separate entities, different from each other while the person of Tamasic knowledge perceives his gross- body as all in all and remains attached to it.

Subject: Sattwic, Rajasic and Tamasic Action
नियतं सङ्गरहितमरागद्वेषतः कृतम्।
अफलप्रेप्सुना कर्म यत्तत्सात्त्विकमुच्यते॥१८-२३॥
niyataṁ saṅgarahitamarāgadveṣataḥ kṛtam|
aphalaprepsunā karma yattatsāttvikamucyate||18-23||
That obligatory action (action prescribed by the scriptures) is called Sattwic which is performed without any passion or aversion, without any attachment and without any desire for fruits.
यत्तु कामेप्सुना कर्म साहंकारेण वा पुनः।
क्रियते बहुलायासं तद्राजसमुदाहृतम्॥१८-२४॥
yattu kāmepsunā karma sāhaṁkāreṇa vā punaḥ|
kriyate bahulāyāsaṁ tadrājasamudāhṛtam||18-24||
That action is called Rajasic which is performed with great efforts by one who has longing for fruits and who is full of ego.
अनुबन्धं क्षयं हिंसामनपेक्ष्य च पौरुषम्।
मोहादारभ्यते कर्म यत्तत्तामसमुच्यते॥१८-२५॥
anubandhaṁ kṣayaṁ hiṁsāmanapekṣya ca pauruṣam|
mohādārabhyate karma yattattāmasamucyate||18-25||
The action done because of delusion without any regard for the consequence, loss, violence and ones own ability (to accomplish the job), is said to be Tamasic.
Lesson:: Sattwic action is performed without any passion, attachment and longing for fruits The Rajasics are done with tremendous efforts  by  egocentrics  who have longing for fruits. But, actions performed   out of sheer delusion without any regard for  consequence, loss, violence and ones own ability are  known as Tamasic.

Subject: Sattwic Doer
मुक्तसङ्गोऽनहंवादी धृत्युत्साहसमन्वितः।
सिद्ध्यसिद्ध्योर्निर्विकारः कर्ता सात्त्विक उच्यते॥१८-२६॥
muktasaṅgo’nahaṁvādī dhṛtyutsāhasamanvitaḥ|
siddhyasiddhyornirvikāraḥ kartā sāttvika ucyate||18-26||
That doer is called Sattwic who is free from attachment and ego who is persevering, enthusiastic and unaffected by success and failure.
Lesson: Sattwic doer has five qualities (i) Unattachment, (ii)Non-egotism,(iii)Perseverance, (iv) Enthusiasm,(v) Unaffected by pleasure and pain of success and failure.

Subject: Rajasic Doer
रागी कर्मफलप्रेप्सुर्लुब्धो हिंसात्मकोऽशुचिः।
हर्षशोकान्वितः कर्ता राजसः परिकीर्तितः॥१८-२७॥
rāgī karmaphalaprepsurlubdho hiṁsātmako’śuciḥ|
harṣaśokānvitaḥ kartā rājasaḥ parikīrtitaḥ||18-27||
He said to be a Rajasic doer who is desirous of fruits-of-action, who is full of attachment, who is greedy, violent, and impure and who is absorbed in (sensual) pleasure and pain.
Lesson: Rajasic doer has six characteristics: (i) Longing for fruits of action, (ii) Full of attachment, (iii) Greed, (iv) Violence, (v) Impurity, (vi) Affected by pleasure and pain of success and failure.

Subject: Tamasic Doer
अयुक्तः प्राकृतः स्तब्धः शठो नैष्कृतिकोऽलसः।
विषादी दीर्घसूत्री च कर्ता तामस उच्यते॥१८-२८॥
ayuktaḥ prākṛtaḥ stabdhaḥ śaṭho naiṣkṛtiko’lasaḥ|
viṣādī dīrghasūtrī ca kartā tāmasa ucyate||18-28||
That doer is said to be Tamasic who lacks piety and self-control, who is unsteady, uneducated (uncultured), wicked, obstinate, malicious, lazy, despondent and procrastinating.
Lesson: Tamasic doer has nine characteristics: (i) Lack of pity and self-control, (ii) Unsteady, (iii) Uneducated, (iv) Wicked, (v) Obstinate, (vi) Malicious, (vii) Lazy, (viii)Despondent, (ix) Procrastinating

Subject: Three Kinds of Intellect and Perseverance
बुद्धेर्भेदं धृतेश्चैव गुणतस्त्रिविधं शृणु।
प्रोच्यमानमशेषेण पृथक्त्वेन धनंजय॥१८-२९॥
buddherbhedaṁ dhṛteścaiva guṇatastrividhaṁ śṛṇu|
procyamānamaśeṣeṇa pṛthaktvena dhanaṁjaya||18-29||
Because of the constituent qualities, the intellect or understanding and perseverance (fortitude) are also of three kinds. Listen, O Dhananjaya, which I am severally telling you.
Lesson: Because of three-fold constituent qualities, the intellect and perseverance are also of three kinds.

Subject: Sattwic Rajasic and Tamasic Intellect
प्रवृत्तिं च निवृत्तिं च कार्याकार्ये भयाभये।
बन्धं मोक्षं च या वेत्ति बुद्धिः सा पार्थ सात्त्विकी॥१८-३०॥
pravṛttiṁ ca nivṛttiṁ ca kāryākārye bhayābhaye|
bandhaṁ mokṣaṁ ca yā vetti buddhiḥ sā pārtha sāttvikī||18-30||
That intellect, O Partha, is Sattwic which knows the reality of action and renunciation of action (action and inaction); what ought to be done and what not; what is fear and fearlessness; and what is bondage and liberation.
यया धर्ममधर्मं च कार्यं चाकार्यमेव च।
अयथावत्प्रजानाति बुद्धिः सा पार्थ राजसी॥१८-३१॥
yayā dharmamadharmaṁ ca kāryaṁ cākāryameva ca|
ayathāvatprajānāti buddhiḥ sā pārtha rājasī||18-31||
That intellect is Rajasic, O Partha, by which one can not understand in reality Dharma and Adharma (Doable and Non-doable / Moral and Immoral) and also what ought to be done and what not.
अधर्मं धर्ममिति या मन्यते तमसावृता।
सर्वार्थान्विपरीतांश्च बुद्धिः सा पार्थ तामसी॥१८-३२॥
adharmaṁ dharmamiti yā manyate tamasāvṛtā|
sarvārthānviparītāṁśca buddhiḥ sā pārtha tāmasī||18-32||
Enveloped in Tamoguna (ignorance) that intellect is Tamasic,O Partha, which considers Adharma as Dharma and interprets all things in a perverted way.
Lesson:  Sattwic intellect enables to discriminate between action and inaction, right and wrong action, fear and fearlessness, bondage and liberation.  Rajasic, on the hand can not distinguish between Dharma and Adharma as well as right and wrong action while Tamasic interprets all the established norms and conventions in a perverted manner recognizing Adharma as Dharma.

Subject: Sattwic, Rajasic and Tamasic Perseverance or Determination
धृत्या यया धारयते मनःप्राणेन्द्रियक्रियाः।
योगेनाव्यभिचारिण्या धृतिः सा पार्थ सात्त्विकी॥१८-३३॥
dhṛtyā yayā dhārayate manaḥprāṇendriyakriyāḥ|
yogenāvyabhicāriṇyā dhṛtiḥ sā pārtha sāttvikī||18-33||
That unwavering resolve or determination (dhriti) is Sattwic, O Partha, by which one controls through Yoga the functions of the mind, the breath (prana/vital energy) and the senses.
यया तु धर्मकामार्थान्धृत्या धारयतेऽर्जुन।
प्रसङ्गेन फलाकाङ्क्षी धृतिः सा पार्थ राजसी॥१८-३४॥
yayā tu dharmakāmārthāndhṛtyā dhārayate’rjuna|
prasaṅgena phalākāṅkṣī dhṛtiḥ sā pārtha rājasī||18-34||
But, that determination is Rajasic, O Arjuna, by which one holds righteous duty (Dharma), wealth (Artha) and passion (Kama) with immense attachment, desiring fruits in return, O Partha!
यया स्वप्नं भयं शोकं विषादं मदमेव च।
न विमुंचति दुर्मेधा धृतिः सा पार्थ तामसी॥१८-३५॥
yayā svapnaṁ bhayaṁ śokaṁ viṣādaṁ madameva ca|
na vimuṁcati durmedhā dhṛtiḥ sā pārtha tāmasī||18-35||
That determination is Tamasic, O Partha, by which an evil minded person does not leave sleep and he does suffer from fear, grief, concern, despondency and even arrogance.
Lesson: Regulating the functions of mind, breath and senses for goodness through Yoga is Sattwic determination His determination is Rajasic who clings to Dharma, wealth and passion with attachment and longing for fruits of action. The evil minded person who does not give up sleep, fear, grief, concern, despondency and arrogance holds   Tamasic determination.

Subject: Three-fold- Pleasure
सुखं त्विदानीं त्रिविधं शृणु मे भरतर्षभ।
अभ्यासाद्रमते यत्र दुःखान्तं च निगच्छति॥१८-३६॥
sukhaṁ tvidānīṁ trividhaṁ śṛṇu me bharatarṣabha|
abhyāsādramate yatra duḥkhāntaṁ ca nigacchati||18-36||
And now, O Best of Bharatas, listen from Me, the three-fold pleasure, in which by regular practice, one     rejoices and attains an end to suffering/ pain;
Lesson: There are moments of joy and happiness in ones life which mitigate his suffering. These are of three kinds viz: Sattwic,Rajasic and Tamasic.

Subject: Sattiwic, Rajasic and  Tamasic   Pleasure
यत्तदग्रे विषमिव परिणामेऽमृतोपमम्।
तत्सुखं सात्त्विकं प्रोक्तमात्मबुद्धिप्रसादजम्॥१८-३७॥
yattadagre viṣamiva pariṇāme’mṛtopamam|
tatsukhaṁ sāttvikaṁ proktamātmabuddhiprasādajam||18-37||
Born of ones purity of intellect(Self-realization), that pleasure is said to be Sattwic which appears like poison in the beginning, but in the end, gives nectar like result;
विषयेन्द्रियसंयोगाद्यत्तदग्रेऽमृतोपमम्।
परिणामे विषमिव तत्सुखं राजसं स्मृतम्॥१८-३८॥
viṣayendriyasaṁyogādyattadagre’mṛtopamam|
pariṇāme viṣamiva tatsukhaṁ rājasaṁ smṛtam||18-38||
That pleasure which is drawn from the contact of the senses and their objects, gives nectar like results in the beginning but like poison at the end is said to be Rajasic;
यदग्रे चानुबन्धे च सुखं मोहनमात्मनः।
निद्रालस्यप्रमादोत्थं तत्तामसमुदाहृतम्॥१८-३९॥
yadagre cānubandhe ca sukhaṁ mohanamātmanaḥ|
nidrālasyapramādotthaṁ tattāmasamudāhṛtam||18-39||
That pleasure which is derived from sleep, indolence and negligence and which deludes the Self, both at the beginning and at the end, is said to be Tamasic.
Lesson: The placidity of mind, borne of Self –realization is said to be Sattwic pleasure. It is difficult to attain but when achieved gives enduring nectarine delight, after a long sojourn of constant endevour /enterprise. The Rajasic pleasure is drawn from the contact of the senses and their objects. It is momentary and gives nectarine taste in the beginning while its end result is poisonous. The pleasure born of sleep, indolence and negligence which deludes the Self, from the beginning to end, is known as Tamasic .Its end result is delusive.

Subject: Universality of the Three-fold Qualities
न तदस्ति पृथिव्यां वा दिवि देवेषु वा पुनः।
सत्त्वं प्रकृतिजैर्मुक्तं यदेभिः स्यात्त्रिभिर्गुणैः॥१८-४०॥
na tadasti pṛthivyāṁ vā divi deveṣu vā punaḥ|
sattvaṁ prakṛtijairmuktaṁ yadebhiḥ syāttribhirguṇaiḥ||18-40||
There is no living entity   on the earth or again among devas, in the heaven, who is free from the three- fold qualities, born of Nature (prakriti).
Lesson: All creatures and the entire world, including the world of perception and physical elements, are influenced by the three-fold constituent- qualities.

Subject: Four-fold Order of Social Living
ब्राह्मणक्षत्रियविशां शूद्राणां च परंतप।
कर्माणि प्रविभक्तानि स्वभावप्रभवैर्गुणैः॥१८-४१॥
brāhmaṇakṣatriyaviśāṁ śūdrāṇāṁ ca paraṁtapa|
karmāṇi pravibhaktāni svabhāvaprabhavairguṇaiḥ||18-41||
The duties of the Brahman, the Kshatrias and Vaisyas and also the Sudras, O Conqueror of the Enimies, have been divided according to their in-born qualities.
Lesson: In the four-fold order of social-living, duties of each class (Intellectuals, Leaders, Trade and Business Persons and Workers) have been allotted or distributed in accordance with its three-fold nature (psychological perspectives)

Subject: Duties of the Four-fold Social Order
शमो दमस्तपः शौचं क्षान्तिरार्जवमेव च।
ज्ञानं विज्ञानमास्तिक्यं ब्रह्मकर्म स्वभावजम्॥१८-४२॥
śamo damastapaḥ śaucaṁ kṣāntirārjavameva ca|
jñānaṁ vijñānamāstikyaṁ brahmakarma svabhāvajam||18-42||
Serenity, self-control, cleanliness, austerity, forgiveness, uprightness, faith-in-the Supreme-Being, knowledge (of scriptures) and wisdom (Realization of the Absolute) are the duties of Brahmanas, born of ( their ) nature;
शौर्यं तेजो धृतिर्दाक्ष्यं युद्धे चाप्यपलायनम्।
दानमीश्वरभावश्च क्षात्रं कर्म स्वभावजम्॥१८-४३॥
śauryaṁ tejo dhṛtirdākṣyaṁ yuddhe cāpyapalāyanam|
dānamīśvarabhāvaśca kṣātraṁ karma svabhāvajam||18-43||
Prowess and boldness, splendour, firmness, bravery, ingenuity, generosity, steadiness in battle, charity and leadership  these are the duties of Kshatriyas, born of (their own) nature;
कृषिगौरक्ष्यवाणिज्यं वैश्यकर्म स्वभावजम्।
परिचर्यात्मकं कर्म शूद्रस्यापि स्वभावजम्॥१८-४४॥
kṛṣigaurakṣyavāṇijyaṁ vaiśyakarma svabhāvajam|
paricaryātmakaṁ karma śūdrasyāpi svabhāvajam||18-44||
Farming, rearing of cows and trade are the duties of Vaishyas born of their nature (and) the natural duty of the Sudras is to render service;
Lesson: Born of their own nature the duties of Brahmanas include: (i) serenity, (ii) self-control, (ii) cleanliness, (iv) austerity, (v) forgiveness, (vi) uprightness, (vii) faith-in-the Supreme-Being; (viii) knowledge of scriptures, (ix) wisdom or realization of the Absolute.
The duties of Kshatriysa include: (i) prowess and boldness, (ii) splendour, (iii) firmness, (iv) bravery, (v) ingenuity, (vi) generosity, (vii) steadiness in battle,(viii) charity,(ix) leadership. Farming, rearing of cows and trade are the duties of Vaishyas, born of their own nature while Sudras are to render service at work sites.

Subject: Perfection in Natural Duty
स्वे स्वे कर्मण्यभिरतः संसिद्धिं लभते नरः।
स्वकर्मनिरतः सिद्धिं यथा विन्दति तच्छृणु॥१८-४५॥
sve sve karmaṇyabhirataḥ saṁsiddhiṁ labhate naraḥ|
svakarmanirataḥ siddhiṁ yathā vindati tacchṛṇu||18-45||
One gets perfection in the work, when he performs his (own) duty, born of (his) nature (potential/ability). How he attains (highest) perfection by performing his own duty that you listen:
Lesson: One gets perfection in the work when he accomplishes his own obligatory jobs (duties) born of his nature (potential /ability) rather than attempting jobs prescribed for others.

Subject: In-born Duty and Perfection
यतः प्रवृत्तिर्भूतानां येन सर्वमिदं ततम्।
स्वकर्मणा तमभ्यर्च्य सिद्धिं विन्दति मानवः॥१८-४६॥
yataḥ pravṛttirbhūtānāṁ yena sarvamidaṁ tatam|
svakarmaṇā tamabhyarcya siddhiṁ vindati mānavaḥ||18-46||
One attains perfection, by worshipping “Him” (that Supreme-Being),   through the accomplishment of his own (in-born) duty from Whom all beings have evolved; by Whom this (entire world) is pervaded.
Lesson: Performance of ones in-born duty is the worship of God. One should perform his own duty as an offering made to the Supreme-Being. (Work is Worship).

Subject: Obligatory Act / Work
श्रेयान्स्वधर्मो विगुणः परधर्मात्स्वनुष्ठितात्।
स्वभावनियतं कर्म कुर्वन्नाप्नोति किल्बिषम्॥१८-४७॥
śreyānsvadharmo viguṇaḥ paradharmātsvanuṣṭhitāt|
svabhāvaniyataṁ karma kurvannāpnoti kilbiṣam||18-47||
Performing ones own duty (Dharma) though devoid of merits, is better than the well- performed duty (dharma) of others. He who performs his prescribed duty (duty prescribed by scriptures in accordance with his in-born qualities) incurs no sin.
सहजं कर्म कौन्तेय सदोषमपि न त्यजेत्।
सर्वारम्भा हि दोषेण धूमेनाग्निरिवावृताः॥१८-४८॥
sahajaṁ karma kaunteya sadoṣamapi na tyajet|
sarvārambhā hi doṣeṇa dhūmenāgnirivāvṛtāḥ||18-48||
One should not abandon, O Son of Kunti, his innate duty though (it may be) inferior or full of evils. All actions are enveloped by one or the other evil, as fire by smoke.
Lesson: Instead of doing the work prescribed for others, accomplish your own duty, how-so-ever undignified or inferior it may be. There is no sin in performing ones innate duty.

Subject: Path of Knowledge or Renunciation
असक्तबुद्धिः सर्वत्र जितात्मा विगतस्पृहः।
नैष्कर्म्यसिद्धिं परमां संन्यासेनाधिगच्छति॥१८-४९॥
asaktabuddhiḥ sarvatra jitātmā vigataspṛhaḥ|
naiṣkarmyasiddhiṁ paramāṁ saṁnyāsenādhigacchati||18-49||
One whose intellect is free from attachment everywhere; who is desireless and who has subdued his Self, scales the supreme position of worklessness (liberation from the bondage of action) through the Yoga of Renunciation (Path of Knowledge).
Lesson: Treading the path of renunciation, he scales the highest state of worklessness (freedom from the bondage of action) who is unattached; has subdued his mind and the senses (through Yoga); and has no longing for fruits of action.

Subject: Essential Qualities of a Yogi
सिद्धिं प्राप्तो यथा ब्रह्म तथाप्नोति निबोध मे।
समासेनैव कौन्तेय निष्ठा ज्ञानस्य या परा॥१८-५०॥
siddhiṁ prāpto yathā brahma tathāpnoti nibodha me|
samāsenaiva kaunteya niṣṭhā jñānasya yā parā||18-50||
Know from Me, in brief, O Son of Kunti, how, having scaled the position of workless ness, one attains the Supreme Person (Brahman), the highest consummation of wisdom;
बुद्ध्या विशुद्धया युक्तो धृत्यात्मानं नियम्य च।
शब्दादीन्विषयांस्त्यक्त्वा रागद्वेषौ व्युदस्य च॥१८-५१॥
buddhyā viśuddhayā yukto dhṛtyātmānaṁ niyamya ca|
śabdādīnviṣayāṁstyaktvā rāgadveṣau vyudasya ca||18-51||
(Such a person is worthy of establishing unity with Brahman who) endowed with a pure intellect has controlled the self (subdued the mind) with firm determination (resolve), abandoned sound and other sense-objects as well as passion and aversion;
विविक्तसेवी लघ्वाशी यतवाक्कायमानसः।
ध्यानयोगपरो नित्यं वैराग्यं समुपाश्रितः॥१८-५२॥
viviktasevī laghvāśī yatavākkāyamānasaḥ|
dhyānayogaparo nityaṁ vairāgyaṁ samupāśritaḥ||18-52||
Living in solitude, (who is) abstemious (takes moderate food), has won over the body, mind and the voice (and) taking refuge in dispassion (who is) ever absorbed in meditation;
अहंकारं बलं दर्पं कामं क्रोधं परिग्रहम्।
विमुच्य निर्ममः शान्तो ब्रह्मभूयाय कल्पते॥१८-५३॥
ahaṁkāraṁ balaṁ darpaṁ kāmaṁ krodhaṁ parigraham|
vimucya nirmamaḥ śānto brahmabhūyāya kalpate||18-53||
Having given up egotism, power, arrogance, desire, anger, and feeling of meum (feeling of `mine` and `me` (as also) possession of material things and (whose) mind treads in tranquility;
Lesson: For Self-realization (the highest consummation of wisdom), a Yogi should have twelve qualities viz: (i) pure intellect,(ii) subdued senses, mind and intellect or self control,(iii) abandonment of sound and other sense objects,(iv) freedom  from passion and aversion ,(v) life of solitude,(vi) abstemiousness,(vii) victory over the body, mind and the voice,(viii) ever absorbed in meditation,(ix) dispassion or detachment, (x) dispossession, (xi) freedom from egotism, power, arrogance, desire and anger, (xii) peaceful mind.

Subject: Supreme Devotion
ब्रह्मभूतः प्रसन्नात्मा न शोचति न काङ्क्षति।
समः सर्वेषु भूतेषु मद्भक्तिं लभते पराम्॥१८-५४॥
brahmabhūtaḥ prasannātmā na śocati na kāṅkṣati|
samaḥ sarveṣu bhūteṣu madbhaktiṁ labhate parām||18-54||
United with Brahaman, that Yogi (the serene one) neither grieves, nor desires. Giving equal treatment to all beings, he attains My supreme devotion (Para- Bhakti);
भक्त्या मामभिजानाति यावान्यश्चास्मि तत्त्वतः।
ततो मां तत्त्वतो ज्ञात्वा विशते तदनंतरम्॥१८-५५॥
bhaktyā māmabhijānāti yāvānyaścāsmi tattvataḥ|
tato māṁ tattvato jñātvā viśate tadanaṁtaram||18-55||
Through that supreme devotion, he comes to know Me, in essence, what I am and who I am .Knowing Me in essence, he enters into Me, forthwith.(He becomes united  or merges with the Supreme-Being)
Lesson: Through devotion, one can truly understand the Supreme-Being (have true Self-realization). He gets the supreme devotion (devotional love) of the of the Supreme-Being who, endowed with aforementioned twelve qualities, is ever cheerful, does not grieve, nor desires, and gives equal treatment to all beings.

Subject: Yoga of Action and Devotion
सर्वकर्माण्यपि सदा कुर्वाणो मद्व्यपाश्रयः।
मत्प्रसादादवाप्नोति शाश्वतं पदमव्ययम्॥१८-५६॥
sarvakarmāṇyapi sadā kurvāṇo madvyapāśrayaḥ|
matprasādādavāpnoti śāśvataṁ padamavyayam||18-56||
(Even) he attains the Eternal and Imperishable (supreme) position by My grace who does all sorts of acts always taking refuge in Me (dedicating all actions to the Supreme-Being with loving devotion).
चेतसा सर्वकर्माणि मयि संन्यस्य मत्परः।
बुद्धियोगमुपाश्रित्य मच्चित्तः सततं भव॥१८-५७॥
cetasā sarvakarmāṇi mayi saṁnyasya matparaḥ|
buddhiyogamupāśritya maccittaḥ satataṁ bhava||18-57||
Mentally dedicating all actions to Me, as the supreme goal (of all actions) and practicing the Yoga of equanimity, ever fix your mind in Me.
मच्चित्तः सर्वदुर्गाणि मत्प्रसादात्तरिष्यसि।
अथ चेत्त्वमहंकारान्न श्रोष्यसि विनङ्क्ष्यसि॥१८-५८॥
maccittaḥ sarvadurgāṇi matprasādāttariṣyasi|
atha cettvamahaṁkārānna śroṣyasi vinaṅkṣyasi||18-58||
With your mind fixed in Me, you shall overcome all difficulties by My grace. And, if because of egotism, you will not listen (to Me), you shall perish.
Lesson: A Karam-Yogi (man-of-action )too  attains the same highest position which  a man of wisdom (Gyan-Yogi) achieves provided he: (i) does all sort of acts always taking refuge in the Supreme (thinking that every thing is done by the Supreme, man is just an instrument),(ii) dedicates all his acts to the Supreme,(iii)considers the Supreme as the highest goal for all his acts,(iv) practices yoga of equanimity (gives equal treatment to all beings/situations),(v)  absorbs in the Supreme  for ever,(vi) gives up egotism.

Subject:   Action and Impressions of Action (Samskara)
यदहंकारमाश्रित्य न योत्स्य इति मन्यसे।
मिथ्यैष व्यवसायस्ते प्रकृतिस्त्वां नियोक्ष्यति॥१८-५९॥
yadahaṁkāramāśritya na yotsya iti manyase|
mithyaiṣa vyavasāyaste prakṛtistvāṁ niyokṣyati||18-59||
Propelled by egotism, your resolve, “I will not fight”, is false. (Because) your very nature (Nature of being Kshatriya) will compel you (to fight).
स्वभावजेन कौन्तेय निबद्धः स्वेन कर्मणा।
कर्तुं नेच्छसि यन्मोहात्करिष्यस्यवशोपि तत्॥१८-६०॥
svabhāvajena kaunteya nibaddhaḥ svena karmaṇā|
kartuṁ necchasi yanmohātkariṣyasyavaśopi tat||18-60||
You shall be doing helplessly, what you do not want to resort because of delusion. O Son of Kunti, you are bounded by your action (Karma), born of your karmic- nature or Samskara (impressions of the acts of previous birth).
Lesson: Every being is bound to work according to his in-born karmic nature (samskara)

Subject: The Supreme In-dwelling
ईश्वरः सर्वभूतानां हृद्देशेऽर्जुन तिष्ठति।
भ्रामयन्सर्वभूतानि यन्त्रारूढानि मायया॥१८-६१॥
īśvaraḥ sarvabhūtānāṁ hṛddeśe’rjuna tiṣṭhati|
bhrāmayansarvabhūtāni yantrārūḍhāni māyayā||18-61||
The Supreme-Being abides in the hearts (inner psyche) of all beings, O Arjuna! By His illusive power (Yog-maya), He causes all beings to revolve (work) as if (puppets) mounted on a machine (machine like physical body).
Lesson: The Supreme-Being exists in the hearts of all beings and by His power activates their machine like bodies to act helplessly like puppets revolved by a puppeteer. (The Self existing in the inner psyche of beings, activates the instruments of knowledge and action through mind and the intellect, to act helplessly, without their free-will)

Subject: Secret of   Supreme Position
तमेव शरणं गच्छ सर्वभावेन भारत।
तत्प्रसादात्परां शान्तिं स्थानं प्राप्स्यसि शाश्वतम्॥१८-६२॥
tameva śaraṇaṁ gaccha sarvabhāvena bhārata|
tatprasādātparāṁ śāntiṁ sthānaṁ prāpsyasi śāśvatam||18-62||
Take refuge in Him (the Supreme-Being), with all your being, O Bharat! By His grace alone, you shall attain the Supreme Peace and the Eternal Abode/position (param dham).
इति ते ज्ञानमाख्यातं गुह्याद्गुह्यतरं मया।
विमृश्यैतदशेषेण यथेच्छसि तथा कुरु॥१८-६३॥
iti te jñānamākhyātaṁ guhyādguhyataraṁ mayā|
vimṛśyaitadaśeṣeṇa yathecchasi tathā kuru||18-63||
Thus, I have told you the wisdom which is the secret of all secrets. Having completely reflected upon it, now you act as you wish.
सर्वगुह्यतमं भूयः शृणु मे परमं वचः।
इष्टोऽसि मे दृढमिति ततो वक्ष्यामि ते हितम्॥१८-६४॥
sarvaguhyatamaṁ bhūyaḥ śṛṇu me paramaṁ vacaḥ|
iṣṭo’si me dṛḍhamiti tato vakṣyāmi te hitam||18-64||
Listen again to My most secret supreme word.  As you are very dear to Me, I shall tell you this salutary (advice) for your benefit.
Lesson: Performing ones own duty, with devotion in the refuge of the Supreme-Being, is the secret of all successes. Considering all the pros and cons and taking in view much wider perspectives and all the cross cutting issues, one should utilize his own wisdom to decide whether or not to perform a particular task or act.

Subject: Devotion, Dedication and Surrender
मन्मना भव मद्भक्तो मद्याजी मां नमस्कुरु।
मामेवैष्यसि सत्यं ते प्रतिजाने प्रियोऽसि मे॥१८-६५॥
manmanā bhava madbhakto madyājī māṁ namaskuru|
māmevaiṣyasi satyaṁ te pratijāne priyo’si me||18-65||
Fix your mind upon Me, be devoted to Me, worship Me and bow down to Me. You shall then, certainly come to Me. Truly, I promise to you, (as) you are very dear to Me.
सर्वधर्मान् परित्यज्य मामेकं शरणं व्रज।
अहं त्वां सर्वपापेभ्यो मोक्ष्ययिष्यामि मा शुचः॥१८-६६॥
sarvadharmān parityajya māmekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja|
ahaṁ tvāṁ sarvapāpebhyo mokṣyayiṣyāmi mā śucaḥ||18-66||
Giving up all Dharmas (different thoughts, reasonings and dogmas), take refuge in Me alone. I shall absolve you of all sins. Do not grieve (worry).
Lesson: Leaving aside different thoughts and dogmas, a karam- yogi (Man of action), taking refuge in the Supreme-Being, should perform his duty (actions) with complete devotion, entirely dedicating them (actions) as offerings made to the Supreme.

Subject: Person Authorized to Share Knowledge
इदं ते नातपस्काय नाभक्ताय कदाचन।
न चाशुश्रूषवे वाच्यं न च मां योऽभ्यसूयति॥१८-६७॥
idaṁ te nātapaskāya nābhaktāya kadācana|
na cāśuśrūṣave vācyaṁ na ca māṁ yo’bhyasūyati||18-67||
Do not tell this secret, at any time, to one who is devoid of austerity or devotion, nor to one who is unwilling to listen, nor to one who is envious to Me.
Lesson: Knowledge should not be shared with those who lack: (i) austerity (ii) devotion (iii) willingness to listen (iv) appreciation for divine power.

Subject: Dissemination of Gita’s Message
य इदं परमं गुह्यं मद्भक्तेष्वभिधास्यति।
भक्तिं मयि परां कृत्वा मामेवैष्यत्यसंशयः॥१८-६८॥
ya idaṁ paramaṁ guhyaṁ madbhakteṣvabhidhāsyati|
bhaktiṁ mayi parāṁ kṛtvā māmevaiṣyatyasaṁśayaḥ||18-68||
He who will tell this highest secret (transcendental knowledge) to My devotees, with supreme devotion, shall undoubtedly come to Me.
न च तस्मान्मनुष्येषु कश्चिन्मे प्रियकृत्तमः।
भविता न च मे तस्मादन्यः प्रियतरो भुवि॥१८-६९॥
na ca tasmānmanuṣyeṣu kaścinme priyakṛttamaḥ|
bhavitā na ca me tasmādanyaḥ priyataro bhuvi||18-69||
There is none among men who does more dear (pleasing) service to Me than he, nor there shall be more dearer to Me, on the earth, other than him (who disseminates the message of Shrimad Bhagvad Gitas ).
अध्येष्यते च य इमं धर्म्यं संवादमावयोः।
ज्ञानयज्ञेन तेनाहमिष्टः स्यामिति मे मतिः॥१८-७०॥
adhyeṣyate ca ya imaṁ dharmyaṁ saṁvādamāvayoḥ|
jñānayajñena tenāhamiṣṭaḥ syāmiti me matiḥ||18-70||
Such is My conviction that I have been worshipped by him, through the sacrifice-of –wisdom (Gyan-yajna) who shall study our, this sacred dialogue.
श्रद्धावाननसूयश्च शृणुयादपि यो नरः।
सोऽपि मुक्तः शुभाँल्लोकान्प्राप्नुयात्पुण्यकर्मणाम्॥१८-७१॥
śraddhāvānanasūyaśca śṛṇuyādapi yo naraḥ|
so’pi muktaḥ śubhāllokānprāpnuyātpuṇyakarmaṇām||18-71||
Having liberated from all evils that man also shall attain the happy world of virtuous who just listens this with full faith and without any malice.
Lesson: The transcendental knowledge, envisioned in Shrimad Bhagvad Gita, is the genesis of Dharma Eternal. Its study, exposition, discourse or teaching is the sacred and highest service of the Supreme. Those engaged in spreading its message and also who receive the message with devotional love and faith shall establish unity with the Supreme.  (The secrets of the cosmic realities and the Absolute One are revealed by a combination of wisdom, devotion and faith .Sharing of the transcendental knowledge is the highest devotional service to the Supreme-Being.)

Subject: Wisdom of  Shrimad Bhagvad Gita
कच्चिदेतच्छ्रुतं पार्थ त्वयैकाग्रेण चेतसा।
कच्चिदज्ञानसंमोहः प्रनष्टस्ते धनंजय॥१८-७२॥
kaccidetacchrutaṁ pārtha tvayaikāgreṇa cetasā|
kaccidajñānasaṁmohaḥ pranaṣṭaste dhanaṁjaya||18-72||
O Partha, Did you hear this (My discourse), with full attention! Whether your delusion, born of ignorance, has been vanished, O Dhananjaya!
Lesson: The wisdom of Shrimad Bhagvad Gita removes delusion and doubts born of ignorance. The curious reader should make deeper exploration for better clarity of his doubts and misgivings.

अर्जुन उवाच।
arjuna uvāca|
Arjuna said

Subject: Impact of Wisdom
नष्टो मोहः स्मृतिर्लब्धा त्वत्प्रसादान्मयाऽच्युत।
स्थितोऽस्मि गतसंदेहः करिष्ये वचनं तव॥१८-७३॥
naṣṭo mohaḥ smṛtirlabdhā tvatprasādānmayā’cyuta|
sthito’smi gatasaṁdehaḥ kariṣye vacanaṁ tava||18-73||
O Achuyat, by your grace (my) delusion has been vanished. I have regained memory (knowledge /my instable mind has become stable). Free from all doubts, I shall abide by your words.
Lesson: Knowledge removes delusion, born of ignorance.   The instable mind becomes stable when delusions and doubts are removed. Knowledge, once gained, needs to be translated into practice.

संजय उवाच।
saṁjaya uvāca|
Sanjaya said:

Subject: Conclusion
इत्यहं वासुदेवस्य पार्थस्य च महात्मनः।
संवादमिममश्रौषमद्भुतं रोमहर्षणम्॥१८-७४॥
ityahaṁ vāsudevasya pārthasya ca mahātmanaḥ|
saṁvādamimamaśrauṣamadbhutaṁ romaharṣaṇam||18-74||
Thus, I have heard this miraculous and thrilling dialogue between Vasudeva and the great-souled, Arjuna.
व्यासप्रसादाच्छ्रुतवानेतद्गुह्यमहं परम्।
योगं योगेश्वरात्कृष्णात्साक्षात्कथयतः स्वयम्॥१८-७५॥
vyāsaprasādācchrutavānetadguhyamahaṁ param|
yogaṁ yogeśvarātkṛṣṇātsākṣātkathayataḥ svayam||18-75||
By the grace of Vyasa, I have heard this supreme and most secret  Yoga, directly from Shri Krishna, the Lord of Yoga, Himself describing it.
राजन्संस्मृत्य संस्मृत्य संवादमिममद्भुतम्।
केशवार्जुनयोः पुण्यं हृष्यामि च मुहुर्मुहुः॥१८-७६॥
rājansaṁsmṛtya saṁsmṛtya saṁvādamimamadbhutam|
keśavārjunayoḥ puṇyaṁ hṛṣyāmi ca muhurmuhuḥ||18-76||
Remembering this sacred and miraculous dialogue between Shri Krishna and Arjuna, O King, I rejoice again and again.
तच्च संस्मृत्य संस्मृत्य रूपमत्यद्भुतं हरेः।
विस्मयो मे महान्राजन्हृष्यामि च पुनः पुनः॥१८-७७॥
tacca saṁsmṛtya saṁsmṛtya rūpamatyadbhutaṁ hareḥ|
vismayo me mahānrājanhṛṣyāmi ca punaḥ punaḥ||18-77||
Remembering also again and again that most wonderful Form of Lord Krishna, O King, great is my wonder; and I am delighted again and again.
यत्र योगेश्वरः कृष्णो यत्र पार्थो धनुर्धरः।
तत्र श्रीर्विजयो भूतिर्ध्रुवा नीतिर्मतिर्मम॥१८-७८॥
yatra yogeśvaraḥ kṛṣṇo yatra pārtho dhanurdharaḥ|
tatra śrīrvijayo bhūtirdhruvā nītirmatirmama||18-78||
Wherever there is Krishna, the Lord of Yoga, wherever there is Partha, the great archer, there are lasting prosperity, victory, glory and righteousness. Such is my conviction.
Lesson: The dialogue between Lord Krishna and Arjuna, described in Shrimad Bhagvad Gita, is indeed very thrilling and exciting. One feels great pleasure in recollecting it again and again.
Enriched with the wonderful knowledge,  envisioned in Shrimad Bhagvad Gita, only highly devoted Karma Yogi like Arjuna achieve lasting prosperity, victory, glory and righteousness by the grace of Lord, the Supreme-Being.

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सप्तदशोऽध्यायः — श्रद्धात्रयविभाग योगः

अर्जुन उवाच।
arjuna uvāca|
Arjuna said:

Subject: Three Types of Dispositions
ये शास्त्रविधिमुत्सृज्य यजन्ते श्रद्धयान्विताः।
तेषां निष्ठा तु का कृष्ण सत्त्वमाहो रजस्तमः॥१७-१॥
ye śāstravidhimutsṛjya yajante śraddhayānvitāḥ|
teṣāṁ niṣṭhā tu kā kṛṣṇa sattvamāho rajastamaḥ||17-1||
Meaning: Ignoring scriptural ordinances, those who perform sacrifice with faith, what is their disposition, O Krishna? Is it that of Sattwic, Rajasic or Tamasic?
Lesson: Know the disposition of those who perform sacrifice (Yajna) with full faith, ignoring all scriptural ordinances/directives.

श्रीभगवानुवाच।
śrībhagavānuvāca|
Lord Krishna said:

Subject: Three Kinds of Faith/Disposition
त्रिविधा भवति श्रद्धा देहिनां सा स्वभावजा।
सात्त्विकी राजसी चैव तामसी चेति तां शृणु॥१७-२॥
trividhā bhavati śraddhā dehināṁ sā svabhāvajā|
sāttvikī rājasī caiva tāmasī ceti tāṁ śṛṇu||17-2||
Meaning: The innate disposition or faith of all beings is of three kinds—Sattwic, Rajasic and Tamasic. This you listen:
Lesson: Human beings have all the three types of disposition.

Subject: Man’s Faith and His Disposition
सत्त्वानुरूपा सर्वस्य श्रद्धा भवति भारत।
श्रद्धामयोऽयं पुरुषो यो यच्छ्रद्धः स एव सः॥१७-३॥
sattvānurūpā sarvasya śraddhā bhavati bhārata|
śraddhāmayo’yaṁ puruṣo yo yacchraddhaḥ sa eva saḥ||17-3||
Meaning: The faith of each one(individual), O Bharat, is in accordance with his disposition/temperament. Faith constitutes the very being of a man. What ever the nature of his faith is, so is he.
Lesson: Man is what his disposition is.

Subject: Types of Worshiped (Deity)
यजन्ते सात्त्विका देवान्यक्षरक्षांसि राजसाः।
प्रेतान्भूतगणांश्चान्ये यजन्ते तामसा जनाः॥१७-४॥
yajante sāttvikā devānyakṣarakṣāṁsi rājasāḥ|
pretānbhūtagaṇāṁścānye yajante tāmasā janāḥ||17-4||
Meaning: Those of Sattwic disposition worship the gods, the Rajasic worship the Yakshas and Rakshasas (demi-gods and demons) and others. The Tamasic worship ghosts and (many) other spirits (who have departed).
Lesson: Each individual worship his own deity according to his disposition.

Subject: Demonical Disposition
अशास्त्रविहितं घोरं तप्यन्ते ये तपो जनाः।
दम्भाहंकारसंयुक्ताः कामरागबलान्विताः॥१७-५॥
aśāstravihitaṁ ghoraṁ tapyante ye tapo janāḥ|
dambhāhaṁkārasaṁyuktāḥ kāmarāgabalānvitāḥ||17-5||
Meaning: Those who practice severe austerities, not envisaged in the scriptures, are hypocrites and egoistics.Impelled by the power of lust and attachment;
कर्षयन्तः शरीरस्थं भूतग्राममचेतसः।
मां चैवान्तःशरीरस्थं तान्विद्ध्यासुरनिश्चयान्॥१७-६॥
karṣayantaḥ śarīrasthaṁ bhūtagrāmamacetasaḥ|
māṁ caivāntaḥśarīrasthaṁ tānviddhyāsuraniścayān||17-6||
(They) are the destroyer of all the five elements of the body as well as Me (the Self-within) who dwells within their heart. These unwise are to be known of demoniac disposition.
Lesson: Impelled by power of lust, attachment and ego, the demoniacs destroy their body and the Self-within by performing sever austerity, ignoring scriptural injunctions, to satisfy their selfish desires.

Subject: Liking for Food, Charity and Sacrifice
आहारस्त्वपि सर्वस्य त्रिविधो भवति प्रियः।
यज्ञस्तपस्तथा दानं तेषां भेदमिमं शृणु॥१७-७॥
āhārastvapi sarvasya trividho bhavati priyaḥ|
yajñastapastathā dānaṁ teṣāṁ bhedamimaṁ śṛṇu||17-7||
Meaning: Every one likes three types of food, as also sacrifice, austerity and charity. Listen the distinction between these (three).
Lesson: Ones liking for food, sacrifice and charity depends on his disposition influenced by the three-fold-constituent qualities.

Subject: Food Liked by the Sattwic
आयुःसत्त्वबलारोग्यसुखप्रीतिविवर्धनाः।
रस्याः स्निग्धाः स्थिरा हृद्या आहाराः सात्त्विकप्रियाः॥१७-८॥
āyuḥsattvabalārogyasukhaprītivivardhanāḥ|
rasyāḥ snigdhāḥ sthirā hṛdyā āhārāḥ sāttvikapriyāḥ||17-8||
Meaning: The foods which enhance age (vitality) intelligence, purity, vigour, health, happiness, solace and which are savoury, greasy, juicy and nourishing are dear to Sattwics..
Lesson:The Sattwis like greasy and juicy food which enhances vitality, purity, vigour, health, happiness and solace.

Subject: Food Liked by the Rajasic
कट्वम्ललवणात्युष्णतीक्ष्णरूक्षविदाहिनः।
आहारा राजसस्येष्टा दुःखशोकामयप्रदाः॥१७-९॥
kaṭvamlalavaṇātyuṣṇatīkṣṇarūkṣavidāhinaḥ|
āhārā rājasasyeṣṭā duḥkhaśokāmayapradāḥ||17-9||
Meaning: The foods that are bitter, sour, saline, very hot, pungent, dry, causing burn and also which cause pain, grief and disease are dear to the Rajasis.
Lesson:The Rajasics like bitter, sour, saline, hot, pungent and dry food which causes grief, pain and disease.
यातयामं गतरसं पूति पर्युषितं च यत्।
उच्छिष्टमपि चामेध्यं भोजनं तामसप्रियम्॥१७-१०॥
yātayāmaṁ gatarasaṁ pūti paryuṣitaṁ ca yat|
ucchiṣṭamapi cāmedhyaṁ bhojanaṁ tāmasapriyam||17-10||
Meaning: The half-cooked, insipid, tasteless, stale, decomposed, putrid, rotten, refuse and impure food is dear to persons of Tamasic disposition.
Lesson: The Tamasics like half- cooked, insipid, putrid, stale, rotten and impure food.

Subject: Sattwic Yajna
अफलाङ्क्षिभिर्यज्ञो विधिदृष्टो य इज्यते।
यष्टव्यमेवेति मनः समाधाय स सात्त्विकः॥१७-११॥
aphalāṅkṣibhiryajño vidhidṛṣṭo ya ijyate|
yaṣṭavyameveti manaḥ samādhāya sa sāttvikaḥ||17-11||
Meaning: That sacrifice which is offered, with firm faith, in accordance with scriptural injunctions, as an obligation without any furitive desire is Sattwic Yajna.
Lesson: Yajna performed in accordance with scriptural injunctions as an obligation without any furitive desire is Sattwic .It is considered best among all Yajnas.

Subject: Rajasic Yajna
अभिसंधाय तु फलं दम्भार्थमपि चैव यत्।
इज्यते भरतश्रेष्ठ तं यज्ञं विद्धि राजसम्॥१७-१२॥
abhisaṁdhāya tu phalaṁ dambhārthamapi caiva yat|
ijyate bharataśreṣṭha taṁ yajñaṁ viddhi rājasam||17-12||
Meaning: Consider it a Rajasic Yajna, O Best of Bharat Dynasty, which is offered for ostentation aimed at (gaining) fruits.
Lesson: The Yajna performed for ostentation with furitive desire is Rajasic. It is of secondary value.

Subject: Tamasic Yajna
विधिहीनमसृष्टान्नं मन्त्रहीनमदक्षिणम्।
श्रद्धाविरहितं यज्ञं तामसं परिचक्षते॥१७-१३॥
vidhihīnamasṛṣṭānnaṁ mantrahīnamadakṣiṇam|
śraddhāvirahitaṁ yajñaṁ tāmasaṁ paricakṣate||17-13||
Meaning: That Yajna is said to be Tamasic which is performed without following the scriptural ordinances, without donating food, without chanting of Vedic hymns, without giving remuneration to priests and which is devoid of faith.
Lesson: The Yajna performed without charity, devotion and without observing scriptural injunctions is Tamasic and it should be considered as useless.

Subject: Austerity of the Body
देवद्विजगुरुप्राज्ञपूजनं शौचमार्जवम्।
ब्रह्मचर्यमहिंसा च शारीरं तप उच्यते॥१७-१४॥
devadvijaguruprājñapūjanaṁ śaucamārjavam|
brahmacaryamahiṁsā ca śārīraṁ tapa ucyate||17-14||
Meaning: The austerity of the body includes the worship of gods, of the Brahmans, of teachers, of the wise, cleanliness, simplicity, Brahamchrya (celibacy) and non-violence.
Lesson: There are six constituents of the austerity of the body viz:(i)worship of the gods/deity, (ii) reverence of Brahman, teacher and the wise, (iii) purity, (iv)simplicity, (v) celibacy or Brahamcharya, (vi)non-violence.

Subject: Austerity of Speech
अनुद्वेगकरं वाक्यं सत्यं प्रियहितं च यत्।
स्वाध्यायाभ्यसनं चैव वाङ्मयं तप उच्यते॥१७-१५॥
anudvegakaraṁ vākyaṁ satyaṁ priyahitaṁ ca yat|
svādhyāyābhyasanaṁ caiva vāṅmayaṁ tapa ucyate||17-15||
Meaning: Expression of words which are inoffensive, truthful, pleasant and beneficial, (as also) the study of Vedas and other scriptures are known as the austerity of words or speech.
Lesson: The austerity of words is comprised of:
(a) Expression of pleasant, wholesome and inoffensive truthful words, (b) study of Vedas and other scriptures

Subject: Austerity of Mind
मनः प्रसादः सौम्यत्वं मौनमात्मविनिग्रहः।
भावसंशुद्धिरित्येतत्तपो मानसमुच्यते॥१७-१६॥
manaḥ prasādaḥ saumyatvaṁ maunamātmavinigrahaḥ|
bhāvasaṁśuddhirityetattapo mānasamucyate||17-16||
Meaning: Happiness of mind, serenity, silence, self-control, internal purity; these together are called the austerity of the mind.
Lesson: The austerity of the mind includes :(i)happiness of the mind, (ii)serenity, (iii)silence, (iv)self-control, (v)internal purity.

Subject: Sattwic Austerity
श्रद्धया परया तप्तं तपस्तत्त्रिविधं नरैः।
अफलाकाङ्क्षिभिर्युक्तैः सात्त्विकं परिचक्षते॥१७-१७॥
śraddhayā parayā taptaṁ tapastattrividhaṁ naraiḥ|
aphalākāṅkṣibhiryuktaiḥ sāttvikaṁ paricakṣate||17-17||
Meaning: This three-fold austerity (of deeds, speech and the mind) performed with full faith by steadfast person, having no desire for fruit, is called Sattwic austerity.
Lesson: The Sattwic austerity is known as the practice of the aforementioned three-fold austerity with devotion and without expectation of any reward.

Subject: Rajasic Austerity
सत्कारमानपूजार्थं तपो दम्भेन चैव यत्।
क्रियते तदिह प्रोक्तं राजसं चलमध्रुवम्॥१७-१८॥
satkāramānapūjārthaṁ tapo dambhena caiva yat|
kriyate tadiha proktaṁ rājasaṁ calamadhruvam||17-18||
Meaning: That austerity is said to be Rajasic which is performed with the object of winning respect, honour and worship and for ostentation is instable and transitory in effect.
Lesson: The austerity performed for self- praise or for getting self-reverence is Rajasic. It has no spiritual value.

Subject: Tamasic Austerity
मूढग्राहेणात्मनो यत्पीडया क्रियते तपः।
परस्योत्सादनार्थं वा तत्तामसमुदाहृतम्॥१७-१९॥
mūḍhagrāheṇātmano yatpīḍayā kriyate tapaḥ|
parasyotsādanārthaṁ vā tattāmasamudāhṛtam||17-19||
Meaning: The austerity is known as Tamasic which is performed out of foolishness and perversity for self-torture or to hurt others.
Lesson: The austerity performed with foolishness and perversity to torture ones own-self or others is known as Tamasic

Subject: Sattwic Charity
दातव्यमिति यद्दानं दीयतेऽनुपकारिणे।
देशे काले च पात्रे च तद्दानं सात्त्विकं स्मृतम्॥१७-२०॥
dātavyamiti yaddānaṁ dīyate’nupakāriṇe|
deśe kāle ca pātre ca taddānaṁ sāttvikaṁ smṛtam||17-20||
Meaning: That is said to be Sattwic charity which is given with a sense of duty, at a right time and (right) place, to a worthy person, without any expectation of reward or return from him.
Lesson: The charity made to a right person, as an obligation at a right time and right place, without any expectation of reward is considered as Sattwic charity.

Subject: Rajasic Charity
यत्तु प्रत्त्युपकारार्थं फलमुद्दिश्य वा पुनः।
दीयते च परिक्लिष्टं तद्दानं राजसं स्मृतम्॥१७-२१॥
yattu prattyupakārārthaṁ phalamuddiśya vā punaḥ|
dīyate ca parikliṣṭaṁ taddānaṁ rājasaṁ smṛtam||17-21||
Meaning: That charity is said to be Rajasic which is given reluctantly with the expectation of some return or for getting some fruit.
Lesson: The charity given with reluctance and for rewards is known as Rajasic charity.

Subject: Tamasic Charity
अदेशकाले यद्दानमपात्रेभ्यश्च दीयते।
असत्कृतमवज्ञातं तत्तामसमुदाहृतम्॥१७-२२॥
adeśakāle yaddānamapātrebhyaśca dīyate|
asatkṛtamavajñātaṁ tattāmasamudāhṛtam||17-22||
Meaning: That charity is said to be Tamasic which is given at a wrong place and (wrong) time to wrong persons without respect or with indignity.
Lesson: The charity made to unworthy person and at a wrong time as also at the wrong place without any reverence and dignity is Tamasic charity.

Subject: The Triple Words
ॐतत्सदिति निर्देशो ब्रह्मणस्त्रिविधः स्मृतः।
ब्राह्मणास्तेन वेदाश्च यज्ञाश्च विहिताः पुरा॥१७-२३॥
omtatsaditi nirdeśo brahmaṇastrividhaḥ smṛtaḥ|
brāhmaṇāstena vedāśca yajñāśca vihitāḥ purā||17-23||
Meaning: The Absolute ( Brahman) is addressed by triple words of OM, TAT, SAT. At the beginning of the creation, the Brahman, the Vedas and sacrifices were created by that.

Subject: Importance of One Syllable AUM
तस्मादोमित्युदाहृत्य यज्ञदानतपःक्रियाः।
प्रवर्तन्ते विधानोक्ताः सततं ब्रह्मवादिनाम्॥१७-२४॥
tasmādomityudāhṛtya yajñadānatapaḥkriyāḥ|
pravartante vidhānoktāḥ satataṁ brahmavādinām||17-24||
Meaning: Therefore, the acts of sacrifice, charity and austerity, as enshrined in the scriptures, are always commenced with the pronouncement of AUM by the knower of Vedas.

Subject: Importance of TAT
तदित्यनभिसंधाय फलं यज्ञतपःक्रियाः।
दानक्रियाश्च विविधाः क्रियन्ते मोक्षकाङ्क्षिभिः॥१७-२५॥
tadityanabhisaṁdhāya phalaṁ yajñatapaḥkriyāḥ|
dānakriyāśca vividhāḥ kriyante mokṣakāṅkṣibhiḥ||17-25||
Meaning: Various acts of charity, sacrifice and austerity are performed by the seekers of salvation by pronouncing the word TAT, without aiming at the fruits.

Subject: Description of SAT
सद्भावे साधुभावे च सदित्येतत्प्रयुज्यते।
प्रशस्ते कर्मणि तथा सच्छब्दः पार्थ युज्यते॥१७-२६॥
sadbhāve sādhubhāve ca sadityetatprayujyate|
praśaste karmaṇi tathā sacchabdaḥ pārtha yujyate||17-26||
Meaning: The word SAT is used in the sense of truth and goodness. And O Partha, the word SAT is also used in the sense of auspicious act.
यज्ञे तपसि दाने च स्थितिः सदिति चोच्यते।
कर्म चैव तदर्थीयं सदित्येवाभिधीयते॥१७-२७॥
yajñe tapasi dāne ca sthitiḥ saditi cocyate|
karma caiva tadarthīyaṁ sadityevābhidhīyate||17-27||
Meaning: Steadfastness in sacrifice, austerity and charity is also called SAT and verily the action performed for the sake of the Supreme-Being is called SAT.
Lesson: All your activities of charity, austerity and sacrifice (Yajna) go to the Supreme-Being when performed with the recitation of the three–fold eternal words AUM, TAT, SAT. The pronouncement of these triple words make such activities wholesome : the activities of goodness and the best.( The three-fold words—AUM, TAT, SAT manifest the Supreme as the word AUM is the Supreme-Being; TAT is that which is beyond the perception of the senses, the mind and the intellect, again the Supreme alone is beyond all perceptions; SAT is the Absolute Reality which again is the Supreme-Being. The three-fold word whether used separately or jointly express only the Supreme One—the Absolute)

Subject: A-sat (Impure /Unreal) Act
अश्रद्धया हुतं दत्तं तपस्तप्तं कृतं च यत्।
असदित्युच्यते पार्थ न च तत्प्रेप्य नो इह॥१७-२८॥
aśraddhayā hutaṁ dattaṁ tapastaptaṁ kṛtaṁ ca yat|
asadityucyate pārtha na ca tatprepya no iha||17-28||
Meaning: What ever sacrifice is done, and whatever austerity is practiced, and whatever charity is given or any other act is performed without faith, it is called A-SAT, O Partha, and it is not for here and hereafter.
Lesson: Perform all your actions with devotion, dedication and faith (as an oblation to the Supreme-Being). Such acts alone are real or pure and go to the Supreme-Being. Else, all your acts are futile or A-sat.

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षोडशोऽध्यायः — दैवासुरसम्पद्विभाग योगः

श्रीभगवानुवाच।
śrībhagavānuvāca|
Lord Krishna said:

Subject: Qualities of Divine Estate (Person of Divine Nature)
अभयं सत्त्वसंशुद्धिर्ज्ञानयोगव्यवस्थितिः।
दानं दमश्च यज्ञश्च स्वाध्यायस्तप आर्जवम्॥१६-१॥
abhayaṁ sattvasaṁśuddhirjñānayogavyavasthitiḥ|
dānaṁ damaśca yajñaśca svādhyāyastapa ārjavam||16-1||
Meaning: O Bharat, the qualities of those endowed with divine nature (estate) include fearlessness, purity of heart, steadfastness in the Yoga-of-knowledge (GyanYoga) charity, control  of senses, sacrifice, study of the scriptures, austerity, simplicity;
अहिंसा सत्यमक्रोधस्त्यागः शान्तिरपैशुनम्।
दया भूतेष्वलोलुप्त्वं मार्दवं ह्रीरचापलम्॥१६-२॥
ahiṁsā satyamakrodhastyāgaḥ śāntirapaiśunam|
dayā bhūteṣvaloluptvaṁ mārdavaṁ hrīracāpalam||16-2||
Meaning: Non-violence, truth, absence of anger, renunciation, peace, aversion to reprehension, compassion for to all creatures;
तेजः क्षमा धृतिः शौचमद्रोहो नातिमानिता।
भवन्ति संपदं दैवीमभिजातस्य भारत॥१६-३॥
tejaḥ kṣamā dhṛtiḥ śaucamadroho nātimānitā|
bhavanti saṁpadaṁ daivīmabhijātasya bhārata||16-3||
Meaning: Non-covetousness, tenderness, modesty, steady determination, vigour, forgiveness, fortitude, and cleanliness, freedom from envy and from the passion of getting honoured.
Lesson: A divinely person is endowed with twenty-seven qualities /values viz: (1)fearlessness, (2) purity, (3) steadfastness in yoga of knowledge , (4) charity, (5) control of  senses, (6) sacrifice –yajana, (7) study of scriptures, (8) simplicity (9) austerity,(10) non-violence,(11) truth,(12) absence of anger,(13) renunciation,(14) peace,(15) aversion to reprehension, (16) causeless compassion,(17) non-covetousness,(18) tenderness, (19) modesty, (20) unattached to sense –objects,(21) vigour, (22) forgiveness, (23) fortitude, (24) cleanliness,(25) freedom from envy,(26) freedom from the passion of getting honoured,(27) firm resolve /determination.

Subject: Characteristics of Demonic-Estate (Demonic   Person)
दम्भो दर्पोऽभिमानश्च क्रोधः पारुष्यमेव च।
अज्ञानं चाभिजातस्य पार्थ संपदमासुरीम्॥१६-४॥
dambho darpo’bhimānaśca krodhaḥ pāruṣyameva ca|
ajñānaṁ cābhijātasya pārtha saṁpadamāsurīm||16-4||
Meaning: O Partha, the characteristics of a demoniac person include hypocrisy, arrogance, self-conceit, anger, harshness, ignorance.
Lesson: The characteristics of a demoniac person include:(1)hypocrisy,(2)arrogance,(3)pride,94)anger,(5)harshness,(6)ignorance.
Subject: Fruits of Divine and Demonic Qualities
दैवी संपद्विमोक्षाय निबन्धायासुरी मता।
मा शुचः संपदं दैवीमभिजातोऽसि पाण्डव॥१६-५॥
daivī saṁpadvimokṣāya nibandhāyāsurī matā|
mā śucaḥ saṁpadaṁ daivīmabhijāto’si pāṇḍava||16-5||
Meaning: The divine qualities are meant for liberation and demonic for bondage. O Pandava, you are endowed with divine qualities, do not grieve.
Lesson:  Develop divine qualities for getting freedom from bondage, led by demoniacal traits.

Subject: Temperaments of Demoniacs
द्वौ भूतसर्गौ लोकेऽस्मिन्दैव आसुर एव च।
दैवो विस्तरशः प्रोक्त आसुरं पार्थ मे शृणु॥१६-६॥
dvau bhūtasargau loke’smindaiva āsura eva ca|
daivo vistaraśaḥ prokta āsuraṁ pārtha me śṛṇu||16-6||
Meaning: There are two kinds of beings in this world—divine and demonic. The (nature of) divine has been described at length; listen from Me, O Partha, the description of the demoniacs.
प्रवृत्तिं च निवृत्तिं च जना न विदुरासुराः।
न शौचं नापि चाचारो न सत्यं तेषु विद्यते॥१६-७॥
pravṛttiṁ ca nivṛttiṁ ca janā na vidurāsurāḥ|
na śaucaṁ nāpi cācāro na satyaṁ teṣu vidyate||16-7||
Meaning: The demoniacs do not know what to do and what not to do. They neither have cleanliness (purity) , nor good conduct, nor truth.
असत्यमप्रतिष्ठं ते जगदाहुरनीश्वरम्।
अपरस्परसंभूतं किमन्यत्कामहैतुकम्॥१६-८॥
asatyamapratiṣṭhaṁ te jagadāhuranīśvaram|
aparasparasaṁbhūtaṁ kimanyatkāmahaitukam||16-8||
Meaning: They say, ` the universe is without truth, without basis (foundation) and without a God. Born of mutual combination (of great elements) it (human body) has no other purpose, than to satisfy lust`.
Lesson: The demoniacs are devoid of wisdom, truth, good conduct and cleanliness. For them, the material world or the physical body is nothing but a product of a mutual combination of physical elements, simply for material enjoyment.

Subject: Temperament of Demoniacs
एतां दृष्टिमवष्टभ्य नष्टात्मानोऽल्पबुद्धयः।
प्रभवन्त्युग्रकर्माणः क्षयाय जगतोऽहिताः॥१६-९॥
etāṁ dṛṣṭimavaṣṭabhya naṣṭātmāno’lpabuddhayaḥ|
prabhavantyugrakarmāṇaḥ kṣayāya jagato’hitāḥ||16-9||
Meaning: Holding this viewpoint, these less-intelligent, lost, ill-disposed, engaged in fierce activities are born for the destruction of the world.
काममाश्रित्य दुष्पूरं दम्भमानमदान्विताः।
मोहाद्गृहीत्वासद्ग्राहान्प्रवर्तन्तेऽशुचिव्रताः॥१६-१०॥
kāmamāśritya duṣpūraṁ dambhamānamadānvitāḥ|
mohādgṛhītvāsadgrāhānpravartante’śucivratāḥ||16-10||
Meaning: Having insatiable desires and filled with hypocrisy, pride and arrogance they always work with evil resolves, upholding false principles because of delusion.
Lesson:  Filled with hypocrisy, pride, arrogance, delusion, ignorance, cruelty and insatiable desires, the demoniacs destroy themselves and the world with their wrong deeds and evil resolves.

Subject: Endless Desires of Demoniac
चिन्तामपरिमेयां च प्रलयान्तामुपाश्रिताः।
कामोपभोगपरमा एतावदिति निश्चिताः॥१६-११॥
cintāmaparimeyāṁ ca pralayāntāmupāśritāḥ|
kāmopabhogaparamā etāvaditi niścitāḥ||16-11||
Meaning: Obsessed with endless concerns, lasting until death; (they) put gratification of lust as their supreme goal, viewing that ‘that is all’.
आशापाशशतैर्बद्धाः कामक्रोधपरायणाः।
ईहन्ते कामभोगार्थमन्यायेनार्थसंचयान्॥१६-१२॥
āśāpāśaśatairbaddhāḥ kāmakrodhaparāyaṇāḥ|
īhante kāmabhogārthamanyāyenārthasaṁcayān||16-12||
Meaning: Bound by a hundred ties of hopes and absorbed in
lust and anger, they strive to collect, by unlawful means,
hordes of wealth for sensuous pleasures.
इदमद्य मया लब्धमिमं प्राप्स्ये मनोरथम्।
इदमस्तीदमपि मे भविष्यति पुनर्धनम्॥१६-१३॥
idamadya mayā labdhamimaṁ prāpsye manoratham|
idamastīdamapi me bhaviṣyati punardhanam||16-13||
Meaning: (They think) ‘‘Today I have acquired this; (now) I will fulfill this desire; I have this much wealth; I shall acquire this much also;
असौ मया हतः शत्रुर्हनिष्ये चापरानपि।
ईश्वरोऽहमहं भोगी सिद्धोऽहं बलवान्सुखी॥१६-१४॥
asau mayā hataḥ śatrurhaniṣye cāparānapi|
īśvaro’hamahaṁ bhogī siddho’haṁ balavānsukhī||16-14||
Meaning: “I have slain that enemy; and others also I shall slay; I am perfect, powerful and happy; I am the lord; I am the enjoyer;
आढ्योऽभिजनवानस्मि कोऽन्योस्ति सदृशो मया।
यक्ष्ये दास्यामि मोदिष्य इत्यज्ञानविमोहिताः॥१६-१५॥
āḍhyo’bhijanavānasmi ko’nyosti sadṛśo mayā|
yakṣye dāsyāmi modiṣya ityajñānavimohitāḥ||16-15||
Meaning: “I am affluent; I am high-born(high caste born) who else is equal to me; I will sacrifice; I will give, I will rejoice”.
Lesson: The demoniacs act only for sensual gratification and material pleasure. They collect hoards of wealth by unjust and unlawful means, giving rise to material temptation and physical power. Considering themselves all powerful and victorious, they rejoice while performing worldly rituals and outward practices.

Subject: Impact of Demoniacal Nature
अनेकचित्तविभ्रान्ता मोहजालसमावृताः।
प्रसक्ताः कामभोगेषु पतन्ति नरकेऽशुचौ॥१६-१६॥
anekacittavibhrāntā mohajālasamāvṛtāḥ|
prasaktāḥ kāmabhogeṣu patanti narake’śucau||16-16||
Meaning: Thus, deluded by ignorance (and) bewildered by numerous thoughts, embroiled in the web of delusion (and) attached to gratification of lust, they fall into the foulest hell.
आत्मसंभाविताः स्तब्धा धनमानमदान्विताः।
यजन्ते नामयज्ञैस्ते दम्भेनाविधिपूर्वकम्॥१६-१७॥
ātmasaṁbhāvitāḥ stabdhā dhanamānamadānvitāḥ|
yajante nāmayajñaiste dambhenāvidhipūrvakam||16-17||
Meaning: Self-conceited, stubborn, filled with proud and intoxication of wealth they perform sacrifice (Yajna) contrary to scriptural ordinance, just for the sake of name, out of ostentation.
Lesson: The demoniacs meet degradation and fall. Self-conceited and filled with lust for material things, proud and intoxication of wealth, they out of ostentation, perform rituals contrary to scriptural ordinance.

Subject: State of Demoniacs
अहंकारं बलं दर्पं कामं क्रोधं च संश्रिताः।
मामात्मपरदेहेषु प्रद्विषन्तोऽभ्यसूयकाः॥१६-१८॥
ahaṁkāraṁ balaṁ darpaṁ kāmaṁ krodhaṁ ca saṁśritāḥ|
māmātmaparadeheṣu pradviṣanto’bhyasūyakāḥ||16-18||
Meaning: These malicious people, given to ego, power, pride, lust and anger, hate Me who dwells in their own bodies as well as that of others.
तानहं द्विषतः क्रुरान्संसारेषु नराधमान्।
क्षिपाम्यजस्रमशुभानासुरीष्वेव योनिषु॥१६-१९॥
tānahaṁ dviṣataḥ krurānsaṁsāreṣu narādhamān|
kṣipāmyajasramaśubhānāsurīṣveva yoniṣu||16-19||
Meaning: I throw these heaters, cruel, evil-doers and worst among men in the world into the demoniacal wombs, again and again
आसुरीं योनिमापन्ना मूढा जन्मनिजन्मनि।
मामप्राप्यैव कौन्तेय ततो यान्त्यधमां गतिम्॥१६-२०॥
āsurīṁ yonimāpannā mūḍhā janmanijanmani|
māmaprāpyaiva kaunteya tato yāntyadhamāṁ gatim||16-20||
Meaning: Taking birth after birth in demoniacal wombs and not reaching to Me, these deluded persons, O Son of Kunti, fall into a state still lower than that.
Lesson: Trapped in the web of false ego, power, pride, lust and anger the demoniacs perform evil deeds. They ignore their inner voice and never strive to improve. They fall in the wombs of demons, birth after birth.

Subject: Causes of Self-Destruction
त्रिविधं नरकस्येदं द्वारं नाशनमात्मनः।
कामः क्रोधस्तथा लोभस्तस्मादेतत्त्रयं त्यजेत्॥१६-२१॥
trividhaṁ narakasyedaṁ dvāraṁ nāśanamātmanaḥ|
kāmaḥ krodhastathā lobhastasmādetattrayaṁ tyajet||16-21||
Meaning: Lust, anger and greed are three gates of hell leading to the destruction (degradation) of the soul. Therefore, these should be abandoned.
एतैर्विमुक्तः कौन्तेय तमोद्वारैस्त्रिभिर्नरः।
आचरत्यात्मनः श्रेयस्ततो याति परां गतिम्॥१६-२२॥
etairvimuktaḥ kaunteya tamodvāraistribhirnaraḥ|
ācaratyātmanaḥ śreyastato yāti parāṁ gatim||16-22||
Meaning: Liberated from these three gates, O Son of Kunti, he follows the path of his welfare and thus gets the supreme position.
Lesson: Lust, anger and greed are the causes of man’s downfall. Liberated from these evils, man attains the state of perfection /achieves his supreme goal.
(Rising from sense-gratification and worldly possession, one should always move for desireless action and egoless perfection.)

Subject: Scriptural Ordinance and Obligatory Work
यः शास्त्रविधिमुत्सृज्य वर्तते कामकारतः।
न स सिद्धिमवाप्नोति न सुखं न परां गतिम्॥१६-२३॥
yaḥ śāstravidhimutsṛjya vartate kāmakārataḥ|
na sa siddhimavāpnoti na sukhaṁ na parāṁ gatim||16-23||
Meaning: One, who acts according to his desires, ignoring the directives of scriptures, neither gets perfection, nor supreme position, nor happiness.
तस्माच्छास्त्रं प्रमाणं ते कार्याकार्यव्यवस्थितौ।
ज्ञात्वा शास्त्रविधानोक्तं कर्म कर्तुमिहार्हसि॥१६-२४॥
tasmācchāstraṁ pramāṇaṁ te kāryākāryavyavasthitau|
jñātvā śāstravidhānoktaṁ karma kartumihārhasi||16-24||
Meaning: In deciding the order of doable and non-doable, only the scriptures are the authority for you. Therefore, you should act according to the directives of scriptures.
Lesson: Do not act arbitrarily to satisfy your whims, fancies or natural impulses. While performing your duty, try to discriminate between the doable and non-doable, keeping in view the scriptural directives as well as social and moral code of conduct and, above all, your sacred inner voice.

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पञ्चदशोऽध्यायः—पुरुषोत्तम योगः

श्रीभगवानुवाच।
śrībhagavānuvāca|
Lord Krishna said:
Subject: Tree of Life ( The Cosmic World)
ऊर्ध्वमूलमधःशाखमश्वत्थं प्राहुरव्ययम्।
छन्दांसि यस्य पर्णानि यस्तं वेद स वेदवित्॥१५-१॥
ūrdhvamūlamadhaḥśākhamaśvatthaṁ prāhuravyayam|
chandāṁsi yasya parṇāni yastaṁ veda sa vedavit||15-1||
Meaning: He knows Vedas (he is wise), who knows that the Asvatha (banyan tree) is said to be imperishable. It has its roots upwards (originated from the Supreme), its branches downwards (gets sustenance from the material world) and its leaves are Vedic hymns (senses which are the means of knowledge)
अधश्चोर्ध्वं प्रसृतास्तस्य शाखा
गुणप्रवृद्धा विषयप्रवालाः।
अधश्च मूलान्यनुसंततानि
कर्मानुबन्धीनि मनुष्यलोके॥१५-२॥
adhaścordhvaṁ prasṛtāstasya śākhā
guṇapravṛddhā viṣayapravālāḥ|
adhaśca mūlānyanusaṁtatāni
karmānubandhīni manuṣyaloke||15-2||
Meaning: In the form of sense-objects, its branches of tender leaves are spread downwards. These are nourished by the three-fold-constituent-qualities. Spreading downwards are its secondary roots of passion and desires which inspire all beings to perform action and thus bind them with the bondage of furitive action.
Lesson: The Supreme-Self is the basic energy of the physical body, born of Nature.( The Supreme Being is the cause of Nature and the Nature is the cause of this ever changing cosmic world which is like a banyan tree, having roots upward and branches downwards.  Originating from the Supreme, the Self-indwelling gets direct nourishment from the Supreme through Its roots upwards, and material substance (for worldly action) from the nature, through Its branches downwards. Its senses (tender leaves) get stimuli from the consciousness-the Self-within.  Only the wise men understand this cosmic relationship).

Subject: The Real Form of the Cosmic World (Tree)
न रूपमस्येह तथोपलभ्यते
नान्तो न चादिर्न च संप्रतिष्ठा।
अश्वत्थमेनं सुविरूढमूलं
असङ्गशस्त्रेण दृढेन छित्त्वा॥१५-३॥
na rūpamasyeha tathopalabhyate
nānto na cādirna ca saṁpratiṣṭhā|
aśvatthamenaṁ suvirūḍhamūlaṁ
asaṅgaśastreṇa dṛḍhena chittvā||15-3||
Meaning: Its (real) form is not perceived here (in this world), neither its end, nor its beginning, nor its foundation (existence).Having cut this firm rooted Aswattha-tree with the strong axe of detachment (vairagya=renunciation);
ततः पदं तत्परिमार्गितव्यं
यस्मिन्गता न निवर्तन्ति भूयः।
तमेव चाद्यं पुरुषं प्रपद्ये।
यतः प्रवृत्तिः प्रसृता पुराणी॥१५-४॥
tataḥ padaṁ tatparimārgitavyaṁ
yasmingatā na nivartanti bhūyaḥ|
tameva cādyaṁ puruṣaṁ prapadye|
yataḥ pravṛttiḥ prasṛtā purāṇī||15-4||
Meaning:  That goal should be sought after, having reached there, none returns again (thinking ) ?I am taking refuge in that primeval person (Aadi Purusha) from whom every thing (all actions/ energy) originated and extended, since time immemorial?.
Lesson: Detached from the material world try to understand the cosmic life: its beginning, existence and dissolution. To know the source of all creation /energy is the supreme goal of life. (Rising above the senses, mind and the intellect, one enters into the world of the supreme-consciousness, totally detached from the material world; never to come back.)

Subject: Path to Supreme Position
निर्मानमोहा जितसङ्गदोषा
अध्यात्मनित्या विनिवृत्तकामाः।
द्वन्द्वैर्विमुक्ताः सुखदुःखसंज्ञैः
गच्छन्त्यमूढाः पदमव्ययं तत्॥१५-५॥
nirmānamohā jitasaṅgadoṣā
adhyātmanityā vinivṛttakāmāḥ|
dvandvairvimuktāḥ sukhaduḥkhasaṁjñaiḥ
gacchantyamūḍhāḥ padamavyayaṁ tat||15-5||
Meaning: Those wise persons attain imperishable- supreme position (of consciousness or supreme- goal) who are free from pride and delusion; have overcome attachment to evils; who are ever established in the Self completely stilled and who are free  from desires and dualities of pleasure and pain.
Lesson: The path to supreme position or to the state of supreme consciousness comprises: (i) liberation from pride and delusion;(ii) victory over the evils of attachment;(iii) persistent meditation upon the self;(iv)liberation from all desires;(v)freedom from the dualities of pleasure and pain (v) steadfastness.

Subject: Supreme Abode
न तद्भासयते सूर्यो न शशाङ्को न पावकः।
यद्गत्वा न निवर्तंते तद्धाम परमं मम॥१५-६॥
na tadbhāsayate sūryo na śaśāṅko na pāvakaḥ|
yadgatvā na nivartaṁte taddhāma paramaṁ mama||15-6||
Meaning: That My Supreme abode is neither illumined by the sun, nor the by the moon, nor fire. Having reached there one does not come back.
Lesson: Strive to attain the glorious state of supreme consciousness illumined by the eternal radiance of the Supreme-Being, not by the external objects like the  sun, moon and fire.

Subject: Self-Embodied
ममैवांशो जीवलोके जीवभूतः सनातनः।
मनःषष्ठानीन्द्रियाणि प्रकृतिस्थानि कर्षति॥१५-७॥
mamaivāṁśo jīvaloke jīvabhūtaḥ sanātanaḥ|
manaḥṣaṣṭhānīndriyāṇi prakṛtisthāni karṣati||15-7||
Meaning: The Self-embodied is indeed My Eternal fragment. Being attached to nature (physical elements/ body), it is called Jeevaatma (live spirit or Self-embodied). Conditioned by the three-fold-constituent – qualities, It (Jeevaatma) struggles with senses, including mind, the sixth.
Lesson: The physical body is a fragment of the physical world (Nature) while the imperishable Self-indwelling is a fraction of the Supreme ?Self. Conditioned by the triple constituent qualities, it vibrates the senses and the mind to act.

Subject: Nature of the Self-indwelling
शरीरं यदवाप्नोति यच्चाप्युत्क्रामतीश्वरः।
गृहित्वैतानि संयाति वायुर्गंधानिवाशयात्॥१५-८॥
śarīraṁ yadavāpnoti yaccāpyutkrāmatīśvaraḥ|
gṛhitvaitāni saṁyāti vāyurgaṁdhānivāśayāt||15-8||
Meaning: The Lord of the body (the Self-indwelling), while leaving the body (at the time of death) as also while entering into the new body (which it gets after death), takes away the senses, including the mind, as the air picks up the aroma from its source.
Lesson:  The Self-indwelling, while leaving the body at the time of death and entering into a new one, takes along with It the subtle body comprising of senses, mind and the intellect.

Subject: Functions of the Self-indwelling
श्रोत्रं चक्षुः स्पर्शनं च रसनं घ्राणमेव च।
अधिष्ठाय मनश्चायं विषयानुपसेवते॥१५-९॥
śrotraṁ cakṣuḥ sparśanaṁ ca rasanaṁ ghrāṇameva ca|
adhiṣṭhāya manaścāyaṁ viṣayānupasevate||15-9||
Meaning: Presiding over the mind, He (the Self-embodied) enjoys the sense- objects through the senses like ear, eyes, nose, tongue and skin.
Lesson: Presiding over the mind the Self-embodied enjoys the sense objects through the senses.

Subject: Form of the Self and Self-realization
उत्क्रामन्तं स्थितं वाऽपि भुंजानं वा गुणान्वितम्।
विमूढा नानुपश्यन्ति पश्यन्ति ज्ञानचक्षुषः॥१५-१०॥
utkrāmantaṁ sthitaṁ vā’pi bhuṁjānaṁ vā guṇānvitam|
vimūḍhā nānupaśyanti paśyanti jñānacakṣuṣaḥ||15-10||
Meaning: But for ignorant, those who have the eye of knowledge alone can see Him (the Self-indwelling) when He exists in the body or when He leaves the body or when, influenced by the constituent qualities, He enjoys the  sense objects.
यतन्तो योगिनश्चैनं पश्यन्त्यात्मन्यवस्थितम्।
यतन्तोऽप्यकृतात्मानो नैनं पश्यंत्यचेतसः॥१५-११॥
yatanto yoginaścainaṁ paśyantyātmanyavasthitam|
yatanto’pyakṛtātmāno nainaṁ paśyaṁtyacetasaḥ||15-11||
Meaning: The Yogis striving for perfection could behold Him (the Self-indwelling) with immense efforts. The unwise whose hearts are impure, even though striving hard, can not perceive Him.
Lesson: The Self-indwelling has three functions viz:(a)Preside over the mind and enjoy the sense- objects;(b)Leave the body;(c) Enter into a new body.
But for the pure-hearted wise persons, none can see these functions, even if they strive to do so.

Subject: Glory of the Supreme-Being
यदादित्यगतं तेजो जगद्भासयतेऽखिलम्।
यच्चन्द्रमसि यच्चाग्नौ तत्तेजो विद्धि मामकम्॥१५-१२॥
yadādityagataṁ tejo jagadbhāsayate’khilam|
yaccandramasi yaccāgnau tattejo viddhi māmakam||15-12||
Meaning: Know that splendour to be Mine which comes from the sun and illumines the entire world; and that which is in the moon and in the fire.
Lesson: The Supreme-Being is the supreme cluster of all pervading   light. All the equipment of the light like the sun, moon and the fire shine and reflect only His radiance. (The Self-indwelling, a fraction of the Supreme-Being [the Supreme ?Light-Form] shines the entire physical body. All the instruments of knowledge and wisdom [the senses, mind and the intellect] vibrate and reflect His light as the sun, moon and the fire reflect the radiance of the Supreme-Being).

Subject: Splendour of the Supreme-Being
गामाविश्य च भूतानि धारयाम्यहमोजसा।
पुष्णामि चौषधीः सर्वाः सोमो भूत्वा रसात्मकः॥१५-१३॥
gāmāviśya ca bhūtāni dhārayāmyahamojasā|
puṣṇāmi cauṣadhīḥ sarvāḥ somo bhūtvā rasātmakaḥ||15-13||
Meaning: And entering the earth, it is Me who sustains all beings by My power/energy. Becoming the sap-giving moon, I nourish all the herbs.
अहं वैश्वानरो भूत्वा प्राणिनां देहमाश्रितः।
प्राणापानसमायुक्तः पचाम्यन्नं चतुर्विधम्॥१५-१४॥
ahaṁ vaiśvānaro bhūtvā prāṇināṁ dehamāśritaḥ|
prāṇāpānasamāyuktaḥ pacāmyannaṁ caturvidham||15-14||
Meaning: Becoming the Vaisvanarh (digestive fire) I dwell in the body of all beings. I join the incoming and out going air to digest the four- fold- food.
Lesson: The Supreme-Being is the basis of the earth which sustains and nourishes all beings movable and non-movable. The sun, moon and the fire are the source of cosmic energy which gives the earth fertility and life-sustaining potential?an expression of the splendour and grandeur of the Supreme-Being.

Subject: The Self-within
सर्वस्य चाहं हृदि सन्निविष्टो
मत्तः स्मृतिर्ज्ञानमपोहनंच।
वेदैश्च सर्वैरहमेव वेद्यो
वेदान्तकृद्वेदविदेव चाहम्॥१५-१५॥
sarvasya cāhaṁ hṛdi sanniviṣṭo
mattaḥ smṛtirjñānamapohanaṁca|
vedaiśca sarvairahameva vedyo
vedāntakṛdvedavideva cāham||15-15||
Meaning: And I am established in the hearts of all. Memory, wisdom and ratiocination also originate from Me. I am the one to be known in all the Vedas; I am the knower of the Vedas and I am the author of the Vedanta.
Lesson: The Self-indwelling is established, as consciousness, in the inner psyche of all beings. It is the basis of their vitality as also their knowledge and wisdom. All faculties of  intellect whether memory or ratiocination or even the knowledge originate from the Self-indwelling. (Knowledge originates from within, not beyond. It is enveloped by ignorance. The eternal light of the Self-within enlightens the intellect with the radiance of knowledge).

Subject: Perishable and Imperishable
द्वाविमौ पुरुषौ लोके क्षरश्चाक्षर एव च।
क्षरः सर्वाणि भूतानि कूटस्थोऽक्षर उच्यते॥१५-१६॥
dvāvimau puruṣau loke kṣaraścākṣara eva ca|
kṣaraḥ sarvāṇi bhūtāni kūṭastho’kṣara ucyate||15-16||
Meaning: There are two kinds of entities (Purusha) in this world?the perishable and imperishable (Kshar and Akshar). All the entities in the material world (physical body) are perishable; the Kutashthah is called the Imperishable.

Subject: Superior Person (Purushotama)
उत्तमः पुरुषस्त्वन्यः परमात्मेत्युधाहृतः।
यो लोकत्रयमाविश्य बिभर्त्यव्यय ईश्वरः॥१५-१७॥
uttamaḥ puruṣastvanyaḥ paramātmetyudhāhṛtaḥ|
yo lokatrayamāviśya bibhartyavyaya īśvaraḥ||15-17||
Meaning: The best, however, is someone else, known to be the Absolute-Being. By pervading the three worlds,   that Eternal Lord sustains all (Beings).
यस्मात्क्षरमतीतोऽहमक्षरादपि चोत्तमः।
अतोऽस्मि लोके वेदेच प्रथितः पुरुषोत्तमः॥१५-१८॥
yasmātkṣaramatīto’hamakṣarādapi cottamaḥ|
ato’smi loke vedeca prathitaḥ puruṣottamaḥ||15-18||
Meaning: As I am beyond the perishable and I am even superior to Imperishable, I am known to be the Supreme Person (Purushotama) in the world and in the Vedas.
Lesson: All entities in the material world are perishable (changeable).The Self-within alone is unchangeable like an anvil. In spite of Its repeated transmission from one to another body, the Self-within remains unchanged, as despite repeated hammering the anvil remains unchanged.(Anvil is an ironblock upon which smiths place red-hot-iron bits and hammer them to grt required shape of weapons or ornaments. Despite repeated hammering the iron-block remains as it is without any change; only the iron-pits undergo change. The Supreme-Being is superior to all. He is beyond the perishable (changeable) physical elements (world) as also the Imperishable. Being beyond the physical world and superior to all, the Supreme-Being is known as Superior- Person (purushotam) .He nourishes and sustains all the three worlds-the realms of sleep, dream and waking as also remains aloof, both from Perishable and Imperishable.

Subject: The Supreme Person
यो मामेवमसंमूढो जानातिपुरुषोत्तमम्।
स सर्वविद्भजति मां सर्वभावेन भारत॥१५-१९॥
yo māmevamasaṁmūḍho jānātipuruṣottamam|
sa sarvavidbhajati māṁ sarvabhāvena bhārata||15-19||
Meaning: Thus, O Bharat, the undeluded wise who truly knows Me as the Supreme- Being, knows every thing and worships Me, whole heartedly.
इति गुह्यतमं शास्त्रमिदमुक्तं मयाऽनघ।
एतत्बुद्ध्वा बुद्धिमान्स्यात्कृतकृत्यश्च भारत॥१५-२०॥
iti guhyatamaṁ śāstramidamuktaṁ mayā’nagha|
etatbuddhvā buddhimānsyātkṛtakṛtyaśca bhārata||15-20||
Meaning: Thus, O Sinless Bharat, I have explained this most secret transcendental science of the Absolute. Having understood this, one becomes enlightened; all his endeavours get perfection, O Arjuna!
Lesson On acquiring true knowledge of the physical world and the Infinite consciousness, one takes refuge in the Supreme-Being. His mind tends to move towards the Self-within. His intellect (devotion) is absorbed in the Supreme with the realization that the Supreme alone is superior. This is the most secret transcendental knowledge, after knowing which nothing remains to be known and ones all endeavours get perfection; nothing is left to be done.
Lesson On acquiring true knowledge of the physical world and the Infinite consciousness, one takes refuge in the Supreme-Being. His mind tends to move towards the Self-within. His intellect (devotion) is absorbed in the Supreme with the realization that the Supreme alone is superior. This is the most secret transcendental knowledge, after knowing which nothing remains to be known and ones all endeavours get perfection; nothing is left to be done.

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चतुर्दशोऽध्यायः — गुणत्रयविभाग योगः

श्रीभगवानुवाच।
śrībhagavānuvāca|
Lord Krishna said:

Subject:  Highest Knowledge
परं भूयः प्रवक्ष्यामि ज्ञानानां ज्ञानमुत्तमम्।
यज्ज्ञात्वा मुनयः सर्वे परां सिद्धिमितो गताः॥१४-१॥
paraṁ bhūyaḥ pravakṣyāmi jñānānāṁ jñānamuttamam|
yajjñātvā munayaḥ sarve parāṁ siddhimito gatāḥ||14-1||
I will again explain (to you) that Supreme Knowledge, the best of all knowledges, having acquired which all sages, after passing through this world, have attained perfection.
इदं ज्ञानमुपाश्रित्य मम साधर्म्यमागताः।
सर्गेऽपि नोपजायन्ते प्रलये न व्यथन्ति च॥१४-२॥
idaṁ jñānamupāśritya mama sādharmyamāgatāḥ|
sarge’pi nopajāyante pralaye na vyathanti ca||14-2||
By taking refuge in this Knowledge, those who attain My Being, are neither born at the time of creation, nor are they destroyed at the time of dissolution.
Lesson:  One should strive to get that highest knowledge which liberates him from his limited sense of individuality, gets him into the likeness of the Absolute, having liberated from the cycles of birth and death.

Subject: Birth of All Beings
मम योनिर्महद् ब्रह्म तस्मिन्गर्भं दधाम्यहम्।
संभवः सर्वभूतानां ततो भवति भारत॥१४-३॥
mama yonirmahad brahma tasmingarbhaṁ dadhāmyaham|
saṁbhavaḥ sarvabhūtānāṁ tato bhavati bhārata||14-3||
The Great (mahat ) Brahman (Nature / Physical World) is My womb. I place in that the seed (of consciousness) from which, O Bharat, all beings are born.
सर्वयोनिषु कौन्तेय मूर्तयः संभवन्ति याः।
तासां ब्रह्म महद्योनिरहं बीजप्रदः पिता॥१४-४॥
sarvayoniṣu kaunteya mūrtayaḥ saṁbhavanti yāḥ|
tāsāṁ brahma mahadyonirahaṁ bījapradaḥ pitā||14-4||
Whatever forms are born from all the different wombs, O Son of Kunti, the great Brahman is their womb and I am the Seed-giving- Father.
Lesson: All beings are born from the union of matter Consciousness. The Nature (physical world) is like Mother and the Supreme- Self, like the Father, who puts the seed of consciousness in the womb of Mother- Nature. (In the world of perception, the senses, mind and the intellect are activated by the Self-indwelling. All perceptions are born of mind and intellect with the seed sown by the Self-within).

Subject: Bondage of Three-fold Qualities
सत्त्वं रजस्तम इति गुणाः प्रकृतिसम्भवाः।
निबध्नन्ति महाबाहो देहे देहिनमव्ययम्॥१४-५॥
sattvaṁ rajastama iti guṇāḥ prakṛtisambhavāḥ|
nibadhnanti mahābāho dehe dehinamavyayam||14-5||
O Mighty- Armed, in this body,  three-fold qualities, born of Nature (Sat=Goodness, Raj=Passion, Tam=Inertia), bind down  the Imperishable Self-Embodied.
Lesson: Rise above the constituent qualities to get freedom from the worldly bondages. (When the Self-indwelling identifies Itself with the three constituent qualities, It forgets Its Eternity and utilizes the mortal being for ego-centric satisfaction resulting into bindings with various worldly attachments. One should strive to rise above the triple qualities).

Subject: Impact of Constituent- Qualities (Sattwa)
तत्र सत्त्वं निर्मलत्वात्प्रकाशकमनामयम्।
सुखसङ्गेन बध्नाति ज्ञानसङ्गेन चानघ॥१४-६॥
tatra sattvaṁ nirmalatvātprakāśakamanāmayam|
sukhasaṅgena badhnāti jñānasaṅgena cānagha||14-6||
Of these (three qualities), Sattwa (Goodness)
being pure, is luminous and free from evils. O Sinless One,
it binds by attachment to happiness and knowledge.
Lesson: Sattwa (Goodness) invokes intellect, stimulates pure thoughts and gives inner happiness. Still it binds the Self through attachment to knowledge and happiness.

Subject: Impact of Constituent -Qualities (Rajas)
रजो रागात्मकं विद्धि तृष्णासङ्गसमुद्भवम्।
तन्निबध्नाति कौन्तेय कर्मसङ्गेन देहिनम्॥१४-७॥
rajo rāgātmakaṁ viddhi tṛṣṇāsaṅgasamudbhavam|
tannibadhnāti kaunteya karmasaṅgena dehinam||14-7||
O Son of Kunti, know that Rajas (Passion) is born of desires and longings. It binds the embodied-being by attachment to action.
Lesson: Generating desires and longings, the Rajas (Passion) inspires for worldly actions (desirefull or selfish deeds). The Self-indwelling, though a non-doer, is bounded by Rajas, through attachment to action and its fruits, to the egoistic satisfaction of doing work

Subject: Impact of Constituent Qualities (Tamas)
तमस्त्वज्ञानजं विद्धि मोहनं सर्वदेहिनाम्।
प्रमादालस्यनिद्राभिस्तन्निबध्नाति भारत॥१४-८॥
tamastvajñānajaṁ viddhi mohanaṁ sarvadehinām|
pramādālasyanidrābhistannibadhnāti bhārata||14-8||
And know that Tamas (Inertia) deluding all embodied beings, is born of ignorance. It binds, O Bharat, by negligence, indolence and sleep.
सत्त्वं सुखे संजयति रजः कर्मणि भारत।
ज्ञानमावृत्य तु तमः प्रमादे संजयत्युत॥१४-९॥
sattvaṁ sukhe saṁjayati rajaḥ karmaṇi bhārata|
jñānamāvṛtya tu tamaḥ pramāde saṁjayatyuta||14-9||
(Thus) Sattwa attaches to happiness, Rajas to action and Tamas, O Bharat, attaches to negligence which envelops knowledge.

Lesson:  Tamas (Inertia) increases negligence, indolence and sleep   towards noble deeds, with heightened desire to evil action. Enveloped with misconceptions and ignorance the Self-indwelling sleeps in total submission to the material objects (gross body), unable to discriminate between the right and wrong.
Strive to rise above the three-fold- constituent qualities as these are the root cause of all attachments.

Subject: Predominance of the Qualities
रजस्तमश्चाभिभूय सत्त्वं भवति भारत।
रजः सत्त्वं तमश्चैव तमः सत्त्वं रजस्तथा॥१४-१०॥
rajastamaścābhibhūya sattvaṁ bhavati bhārata|
rajaḥ sattvaṁ tamaścaiva tamaḥ sattvaṁ rajastathā||14-10||
Sattwa prevails by overpowering Rajas and Tamas, while Rajas rises by overpowering Sattwa
and Tamas.Likewise, O Bharat, Tamas prevails by overpowering Sattwa and Rajas.
Lesson: All the three qualities are found, in lesser or higher degree, in all beings. When one quality prevails, it overpowers the remaining two to play a secondary role or become dormant.
(The senses, known as the gates and windows of the body, act in accordance with the consciousness (knowledge, perceptions/thoughts) received from the mind and the intellect. The triple qualities lay great impact on this consciousness).

Subject: Predominance of Sattwa
सर्वद्वारेषु देहेऽस्मिन्प्रकाश उपजायते।
ज्ञानं यदा तदा विद्याद्विवृद्धं सत्त्वमित्युत॥१४-११॥
sarvadvāreṣu dehe’sminprakāśa upajāyate|
jñānaṁ yadā tadā vidyādvivṛddhaṁ sattvamityuta||14-11||
When the light of knowledge illumines through every gate of this body, it may be known that Sattwa is predominant.
Lesson: Pure and sacred wisdom (clean and shinning light-of-wisdom) is reflected when Sattwa predominates or prevails. It enables the senses to know and comprehend the world-of-objects in right perspectives and perform noble deeds.

Subject: Predominance of Rajas
लोभः प्रवृत्तिरारम्भः कर्मणामशमः स्पृहा।
रजस्येतानि जायन्ते विवृद्धे भरतर्षभ॥१४-१२॥
lobhaḥ pravṛttirārambhaḥ karmaṇāmaśamaḥ spṛhā|
rajasyetāni jāyante vivṛddhe bharatarṣabha||14-12||
With the rise of Rajas, O Best of the Bharat Dynasty, greed, activity, initiative, unrest and longing arise,
Lesson: With the rise of Rajas , the mind reflects such perceptions and thoughts which lead to selfish- deeds, desire full actions and greed resulting into restless.

Subject: Predominance of Tamas
अप्रकाशोऽप्रवृत्तिश्च प्रमादो मोह एव च।
तमस्येतानि जायन्ते विवृद्धे कुरुनन्दन॥१४-१३॥
aprakāśo’pravṛttiśca pramādo moha eva ca|
tamasyetāni jāyante vivṛddhe kurunandana||14-13||
When Tamas is predominant, O Descendent-of-Kuru, darkness, inertness, negligence and delusion arise.
Lesson: When Tamas increases, the mind becomes incapable to discriminate and the senses are trapped in negligence, delusion, inertness and inaction.

Subject: Rebirth and the Qualities
यदा सत्त्वे प्रवृद्धे तु प्रलयं याति देहभृत्।
तदोत्तमविदां लोकानमलान्प्रतिपद्यते॥१४-१४॥
yadā sattve pravṛddhe tu pralayaṁ yāti dehabhṛt|
tadottamavidāṁ lokānamalānpratipadyate||14-14||
When one dies during the prominence of Sattwa, he (the Self-embodied) goes to the clean worlds of the knowers of the Supreme.
रजसि प्रलयं गत्वा कर्मसङ्गिषु जायते।
तथा प्रलीनस्तमसि मूढयोनिषु जायते॥१४-१५॥
rajasi pralayaṁ gatvā karmasaṅgiṣu jāyate|
tathā pralīnastamasi mūḍhayoniṣu jāyate||14-15||
He who dies in Rajas is born among those attached to action and the one in Tamas, gets the womb of the deluded.
Lesson: Individuals go to persons and environs of their own wave length. Even their rebirth is held as per the thought wave they hold at the time of their death. The embodied dying in the height of Sattwa, goes to the realm of highest knowledge, while the Rajas and Tamas are respectively, born as persons attached to action and deluded one.

Subject: The Triple- Qualities and the Fruits of Actions
कर्मणः सुकृतस्याहुः सात्त्विकं निर्मलं फलम्।
रजसस्तु फलं दुःखमज्ञानं तमसः फलम्॥१४-१६॥
karmaṇaḥ sukṛtasyāhuḥ sāttvikaṁ nirmalaṁ phalam|
rajasastu phalaṁ duḥkhamajñānaṁ tamasaḥ phalam||14-16||
It is said that the fruit of good ( Sattwic) action is  pious and pure (goodness); the fruit of Rajasic action is pain, while ignorance is the fruit of Tamasic acts.
सत्त्वात्संजायते ज्ञानं रजसो लोभ एव च।
प्रमादमोहौ तमसो भवतोऽज्ञानमेव च॥१४-१७॥
sattvātsaṁjāyate jñānaṁ rajaso lobha eva ca|
pramādamohau tamaso bhavato’jñānameva ca||14-17||
From Sattwa arises knowledge and greed undoubtedly from Rajas while negligence and inertness arise from Tamas as also ignorance.
ऊर्ध्वं गच्छन्ति सत्त्वस्था मध्ये तिष्ठन्ति राजसाः।
जघन्यगुणवृत्तिस्था अधो गच्छन्ति तामसाः॥१४-१८॥
ūrdhvaṁ gacchanti sattvasthā madhye tiṣṭhanti rājasāḥ|
jaghanyaguṇavṛttisthā adho gacchanti tāmasāḥ||14-18||
Those established in Sattwa evolve upwards, the Rajasic remain in the middle and the Tamasic, steeped in the lowest functions of the qualities, go downwards.
Lesson: Always strive to live a Sattwic life?a life ethically pure, noble and highly contented.
–Joy, contentment and inner tranquility are the fruit of noble deeds performed under the influence of Sattwa.With clean thinking and right judgment the Sattwic evolves upwards whether it is meditation, knowledge, action or devotion.
— Internal agitation, pain and agony of material thirst are the fruit of Rajasic action born of greed, selfishness and passion. The Rajasic fails to scale spiritual  heights as he is always trapped in the endless desires and agitations.
–Tamasic actions give suffering of inertness and misdeeds.  Lust and delusion of the Tamasic always bring him down.

Subject: Path of Liberation
नान्यं गुणेभ्यः कर्तारं यदा द्रष्टानुपश्यति।
गुणेभ्यश्च परं वेत्ति मद्भावं सोऽधिगच्छति॥१४-१९॥
nānyaṁ guṇebhyaḥ kartāraṁ yadā draṣṭānupaśyati|
guṇebhyaśca paraṁ vetti madbhāvaṁ so’dhigacchati||14-19||
That seer attains to My Being who beholds no agent (for his acts) other than the constituent qualities and also knows ?That? (who is) beyond the qualities. (Knows Him who is beyond the qualities.)
गुणानेतानतीत्य त्रीन्देही देहसमुद्भवान्।
जन्ममृत्युजरादुःखैर्विमुक्तोऽमृतमश्नुते॥१४-२०॥
guṇānetānatītya trīndehī dehasamudbhavān|
janmamṛtyujarāduḥkhairvimukto’mṛtamaśnute||14-20||
The Self-Embodied is liberated from birth, death, old age and pain and gets immortality when It transcends over the three-fold- qualities, the primary cause of the body.
Lesson: Crossing over the triple- constituent- qualities is the path of liberation.
(All bodily functions are held as per the constituent qualities. The Self-Embodied is a seer, not a doer. When It rises above the qualities, It remains unaffected from their resultant pleasure and pain and gets liberation. )

अर्जुन उवाच।
arjuna uvāca|
Arjuna said:

Subject: Marks of a Liberated Person
कैर्लिङ्गैस्त्रीन्गुणानेतानतीतो भवति प्रभो।
किमाचारः कथं चैतांस्त्रीन्गुणानतिवर्तते॥१४-२१॥
kairliṅgaistrīnguṇānetānatīto bhavati prabho|
kimācāraḥ kathaṁ caitāṁstrīnguṇānativartate||14-21||
What are the marks of him, O Lord, who has transcended the thee-fold qualities? What is his conduct and how does he rise above these qualities?
Lesson: Get an insight into the characteristics and conduct of the embodied who has transcended the triple qualities as also the means of getting these over.

श्रीभगवानुवाच।
śrībhagavānuvāca|
Lord Krishna said:
Subject: Characteristics of a Liberated Person
प्रकाशं च प्रवृत्तिं च मोहमेव च पाण्डव।
त द्वेष्टि संप्रवृत्तानि न निवृत्तानि काङ्क्षति॥१४-२२॥
prakāśaṁ ca pravṛttiṁ ca mohameva ca pāṇḍava|
ta dveṣṭi saṁpravṛttāni na nivṛttāni kāṅkṣati||14-22||
O Pandava, he is said to have transcended to qualities:
–Who does not feel aversion to light (knowledge), attachment and delusion when they arise, nor does he long for them when they cease
उदासीनवदासीनो गुणैर्यो न विचाल्यते।
गुणा वर्तन्त इत्येव योऽवतिष्ठति नेङ्गते॥१४-२३॥
udāsīnavadāsīno guṇairyo na vicālyate|
guṇā vartanta ityeva yo’vatiṣṭhati neṅgate||14-23||
–Who is seated like an indifferent; who can not be moved by the constituent qualities; established in the Self who is not deviated and who stands apart knowing that all is being done by the qualities;
समदुःखसुखः स्वस्थः समलोष्टाश्मकांचनः।
तुल्यप्रियाप्रियो धीरस्तुल्यनिन्दात्मसंस्तुतिः॥१४-२४॥
samaduḥkhasukhaḥ svasthaḥ samaloṣṭāśmakāṁcanaḥ|
tulyapriyāpriyo dhīrastulyanindātmasaṁstutiḥ||14-24||
–Who regards pleasure and pain alike; who dwells in the Self; who considers a clod, a stone, a piece of gold alike; who is equipoise in  pleasant and unpleasant (situations) and who views both censure and praise alike;
मानापमानयोस्तुल्यस्तुल्यो मित्रारिपक्षयोः।
सर्वारम्भपरित्यागी गुणातीतः स उच्यते॥१४-२५॥
mānāpamānayostulyastulyo mitrāripakṣayoḥ|
sarvārambhaparityāgī guṇātītaḥ sa ucyate||14-25||
–Who is indifferent to honour and dishonour; is alike (to the cause of) a friend and that of an enemy (and) who has renounced all initiatives.
Lesson: Strive to cross over the three-fold- constituent qualities by maintaining equanimity and balance with the internal and external environments, modifications and the interplay of the mind and intellect. Be equipoised amidst pleasant and unpleasant situations, honour and disgrace, censure and praise. There are five virtues required in a person who strives to cross over the qualities. These include: (1) Neither attachment nor longing for knowledge, action and inertness, (2) Established in him-self, (3) Unattached to qualities, (4) Even minded towards all modifications (changes that the gross- body undergoes),material things, persons and all sort of public life  that gives him honour,dishonour,censure or praise,(5)Free from egoistic-satisfaction-of initiating-action

Subject: Transcending the Qualities
मां च योऽव्यभिचारेण भक्तियोगेन सेवते।
स गुणान्समतीत्यैतान्ब्रह्मभूयाय कल्पते॥१४-२६॥
māṁ ca yo’vyabhicāreṇa bhaktiyogena sevate|
sa guṇānsamatītyaitānbrahmabhūyāya kalpate||14-26||
And he (who) worships Me with unswerving devotion, transcends the triple qualities (and) becomes Brahman (Attains Braham Nirvana).
ब्रह्मणो हि प्रतिष्ठाहममृतस्याव्ययस्य च।
शाश्वतस्य च धर्मस्य सुखस्यैकान्तिकस्य च॥१४-२७॥
brahmaṇo hi pratiṣṭhāhamamṛtasyāvyayasya ca|
śāśvatasya ca dharmasya sukhasyaikāntikasya ca||14-27||
For I am the abode of Brahman (the Immortal and Imperishable), of Eternal (Sanatan) Dharma (laws) and of unending bliss.
Lesson: The service offered (action performed) with unswerving devotion is called worship. Such a worship ends all agitations and interplays of the mind and intellect; gives rise to Sattwa, while Rajas and Tamas remain subdued and the doer gets perfection in his work, the ultimate composition of the mind. Therefore, perform your duty with dedication and devotion, as if you are serving the Supreme.

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त्रयोदशोऽध्यायः — क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञविभाग योगः

अर्जुन उवाच।
arjuna uvāca|
Arjuna said:

Subject: Inquisition about Creation and Creator
प्रकृतिं पुरुषं चैव क्षेत्रं क्षेत्रज्ञमेव च।
एतद्वेदितुमिच्छामि ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं च केशव॥१३-१॥
prakṛtiṁ puruṣaṁ caiva kṣetraṁ kṣetrajñameva ca|
etadveditumicchāmi jñānaṁ jñeyaṁ ca keśava||13-1||
Meaning: What is prakriti and purusa (matter and spirit); what is known as the Field (kshetra) and who is the Knower of the Field (kshetragya); what is Knowledge and what should be Known (object of knowledge), O Kesava, I want to learn all these.
Lesson: Which ever path a Yogi adopts, he should know what he is searching for and the relationship of his pursuit with the material world.
(The above shloka is found in many editions of Gita while it is missing in others. Originally, there are said to be seven hundred shlokas only)

श्रीभगवानुवाच।
śrībhagavānuvāca|
Lord Krishna said:

Subject: Body and the Self (Soul)
इदं शरीरं कौन्तेय क्षेत्रमित्यभिधीयते।
एतद्यो वेत्ति तं प्राहुः क्षेत्रज्ञ इति तद्विदः॥१३-२॥
idaṁ śarīraṁ kaunteya kṣetramityabhidhīyate|
etadyo vetti taṁ prāhuḥ kṣetrajña iti tadvidaḥ||13-2||
Meaning: This body, O Son of Kunti, is said to be the Field (Kshetra). He who knows (perceives or views) it, is called the Knower-of-the-Field (Kshetragya). This is told by those who know them (the Field and the Knower of the Field).
क्षेत्रज्ञं चापि मां विद्धि सर्वक्षेत्रेषु भारत।
क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञयोर्ज्ञानं यत्तज्ज्ञानं मतं मम॥१३-३॥
kṣetrajñaṁ cāpi māṁ viddhi sarvakṣetreṣu bhārata|
kṣetrakṣetrajñayorjñānaṁ yattajjñānaṁ mataṁ mama||13-3||
Meaning: Know Me as the Knower –of-the-Field (Self-in-dwelling) in all the ‘Fields’ (physical bodies). The knowledge of the Field and the Knower-of-the-Field, I consider, as the true Knowledge.
Lesson. The physical body is the Field where all activities take place. The Self (the vital consciousness), which beholds the activities of the physical body, is the Knower-of-the-Field (Conscious Viewer). The Supreme-Self dwells as the Self-Embodied, in all the physical bodies. The knowledge about the Self-indwelling and the physical body (world) is the only true knowledge to be explored

Subject: The Material World and Its Creator
तत्क्षेत्रं यच्च यादृक्च यद्विकारि यतश्च यत्।
स च यो यत्प्रभावश्च तत्समासेन मे शृणु॥१३-४॥
tatkṣetraṁ yacca yādṛkca yadvikāri yataśca yat|
sa ca yo yatprabhāvaśca tatsamāsena me śṛṇu||13-4||
Meaning: What is the Field; what is its (Field’s) nature (disposition); what are its modifications (the changes it goes through); (since) when it has been; who is He (the Knower- of- the Field); and what are His powers, listen all this from Me, in brief.
Lesson: For getting True Knowledge, have an insight into the nature and the origin of the physical world and its creator (the Knower- of- the-Field).

Subject: Source of Knowledge
ऋषिभिर्बहुधा गीतं छन्दोभिर्विविधैः पृथक्।
ब्रह्मसूत्रपदैश्चैव हेतुमद्भिर्विनिश्चितैः॥१३-५॥
ṛṣibhirbahudhā gītaṁ chandobhirvividhaiḥ pṛthak|
brahmasūtrapadaiścaiva hetumadbhirviniścitaiḥ||13-5||
Meaning: The sages have sung this distinctively in various hymns of Vedas and also in the passages of BrahmSutra (the Aphorisms of the Absolute), in many ways and conclusively with reasons.
Lesson:  The hymns of Vedas and Brahmsutra passages are the real source of knowledge about the material world and its creator.

Subject: The Field (Material Body) and Its Modifications
महाभूतान्यहंकारो बुद्धिरव्यक्तमेव च।
इन्द्रियाणि दशैकं च पंच चेन्द्रियगोचराः॥१३-६॥
mahābhūtānyahaṁkāro buddhiravyaktameva ca|
indriyāṇi daśaikaṁ ca paṁca cendriyagocarāḥ||13-6||
Meaning: The (five) great elements, ego, intellect, five sense and five motor organs, five sense-objects and one mind;
इच्छा द्वेषः सुखं दुःखं संघातश्चेतना धृतिः।
एतत्क्षेत्रं समासेन सविकारमुदाहृतम्॥१३-७॥
icchā dveṣaḥ sukhaṁ duḥkhaṁ saṁghātaścetanā dhṛtiḥ|
etatkṣetraṁ samāsena savikāramudāhṛtam||13-7||
Meaning: Desire, hatred, pleasure, pain, physical strength or prowess) intelligence and conviction all these in brief are described as the Field with its modifications.
Lesson: There are 24 constituents of the Field (physical body) which under- goes seven changes viz: desire, hatred, pleasure, pain, physical strength, consciousness, conviction or resolve.

Subject: Knowledge
अमानित्वमदम्भित्वमहिंसा क्षान्तिरार्जवम्।
आचार्योपासनं शौचं स्थैर्यमात्मविनिग्रहः॥१३-८॥
amānitvamadambhitvamahiṁsā kṣāntirārjavam|
ācāryopāsanaṁ śaucaṁ sthairyamātmavinigrahaḥ||13-8||
Meaning: Humility (absence of proud), absence of deceit, non-violence, forgiveness, uprightness, service to teacher (guru), purity (of mind and body; thought, word and deed), steadfast ness and self-control
इन्द्रियार्थेषु वैराग्यमनहंकार एव च।
जन्ममृत्युजराव्याधिदुःखदोषानुदर्शनम्॥१३-९॥
indriyārtheṣu vairāgyamanahaṁkāra eva ca|
janmamṛtyujarāvyādhiduḥkhadoṣānudarśanam||13-9||
Meaning: Aversion for sense-objects, absence of ego, constant reflection on pain and miseries inherent in birth, death, disease, and decay;
असक्तिरनभिष्वङ्गः पुत्रदारगृहादिषु।
नित्यं च समचित्तत्वमिष्टानिष्टोपपत्तिषु॥१३-१०॥
asaktiranabhiṣvaṅgaḥ putradāragṛhādiṣu|
nityaṁ ca samacittatvamiṣṭāniṣṭopapattiṣu||13-10||
Meaning: Non-attachment (to fruits of action) and unattached to son, wife, home and all others, ever equanimous to all desirable and undesirable happenings;
मयि चानन्ययोगेन भक्तिरव्यभिचारिणी।
विविक्तदेशसेवित्वमरतिर्जनसंसदि॥१३-११॥
mayi cānanyayogena bhaktiravyabhicāriṇī|
viviktadeśasevitvamaratirjanasaṁsadi||13-11||
Meaning: Unwavering devotion, in steady yoga, to Me n, taste for solitude (introvert nature), distaste for social gatherings;
अध्यात्मज्ञाननित्यत्वं तत्त्वज्ञानार्थदर्शनम्।
एतज्ज्ञानमिति प्रोक्तमज्ञानं यदतोऽन्यथा॥१३-१२॥
adhyātmajñānanityatvaṁ tattvajñānārthadarśanam|
etajjñānamiti proktamajñānaṁ yadato’nyathā||13-12||
Meaning: Consistency (in pursuit) of cosmic knowledge (Brahm-Gyan) with deeper realization that all is pervaded by the omnipresent Supreme-being; all this is known to be knowledge and contrary to this is ignorance.
ज्ञेयं यत्तत्प्रवक्ष्यामि यज्ज्ञात्वाऽमृतमश्नुते।
अनादिमत्परं ब्रह्म न सत्तन्नासदुच्यते॥१३-१३॥
jñeyaṁ yattatpravakṣyāmi yajjñātvā’mṛtamaśnute|
anādimatparaṁ brahma na sattannāsaducyate||13-13||
Meaning: I will (now) describe the ‘Knowable’, by knowing which one attains immortality. It is the Beginning less Supreme-Being ( Brahman ) who is said to be neither ‘Being’ nor Beingless’ ‘(neither ‘Existent’ nor ‘Non-Existent’).
Lesson: There are twenty virtues mentioned in the above five shlokas. A devotee of firm resolve should essentially observe these values in his search for the knower-of- Field.
The Beginning less, Imperishable Supreme (Brahman) alone is Knowable.

Subject: The Knower of the Field
सर्वतः पाणिपादं तत्सर्वतोऽक्षिशिरोमुखम्।
सर्वतः श्रुतिमल्लोके सर्वमावृत्य तिष्ठति॥१३-१४॥
sarvataḥ pāṇipādaṁ tatsarvato’kṣiśiromukham|
sarvataḥ śrutimalloke sarvamāvṛtya tiṣṭhati||13-14||
Meaning: He exists in the world, enveloping all, with hands and feet every where, with eyes, heads, mouths every where and ears every where.
सर्वेन्द्रियगुणाभासं सर्वेन्द्रियविवर्जितम्।
असक्तं सर्वभृच्चैव निर्गुणं गुणभोक्तृ च॥१३-१५॥
sarvendriyaguṇābhāsaṁ sarvendriyavivarjitam|
asaktaṁ sarvabhṛccaiva nirguṇaṁ guṇabhoktṛ ca||13-15||
Meaning: Manifested through the functions of all the senses, (He) is yet without the senses; unattached though, yet sustaining all; devoid of the constituent qualities, (He is) yet their enjoyer.
Lesson: The Supreme – Self, One-in-All, is spread across the world. The Self-indwelling, a fraction of the Supreme, enveloping all activates various parts of the embodied to function. Their constituents are His constituents. Devoid of the three-fold constituent qualities, the Self-embodied is unattached to the body. As the constituents of the body are activated/ sustained by Him, He appears to be the enjoyer of the qualities and possessor of the senses.

Subject: Knower of the Field
बहिरन्तश्च भूतानामचरं चरमेव च।
सूक्ष्मत्वात्तदविज्ञेयं दूरस्थं चान्तिके च तत्॥१३-१६॥
bahirantaśca bhūtānāmacaraṁ carameva ca|
sūkṣmatvāttadavijñeyaṁ dūrasthaṁ cāntike ca tat||13-16||
Meaning: He is without and within- all- beings. He is unmoving as also moving. He is close by and yet at a distance. Being subtle He is inconceivable (incomprehensible).
अविभक्तं च भूतेषु विभक्तमिव च स्थितम्।
भूतभर्तृ च तज्ज्ञेयं ग्रसिष्णु प्रभविष्णु च॥१३-१७॥
avibhaktaṁ ca bhūteṣu vibhaktamiva ca sthitam|
bhūtabhartṛ ca tajjñeyaṁ grasiṣṇu prabhaviṣṇu ca||13-17||
Meaning: He is indivisible and yet exists as if divided among all beings. He is to be known as the supporter of beings, as (also) creator and destroyer.
ज्योतिषामपि तज्ज्योतिस्तमसः परमुच्यते।
ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं ज्ञानगम्यं हृदि सर्वस्य विष्ठितम्॥१३-१८॥
jyotiṣāmapi tajjyotistamasaḥ paramucyate|
jñānaṁ jñeyaṁ jñānagamyaṁ hṛdi sarvasya viṣṭhitam||13-18||
Meaning: The light- of –all- lights, He is said to be beyond darkness. Established in the hearts of all (He is) knowledge, object of knowledge (and) can be known by knowledge alone.
इति क्षेत्रं तथा ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं चोक्तं सनासतः।
मद्भक्त एतद्विज्ञाय मद्भावायोपपद्यते॥१३-१९॥
iti kṣetraṁ tathā jñānaṁ jñeyaṁ coktaṁ sanāsataḥ|
madbhakta etadvijñāya madbhāvāyopapadyate||13-19||
Meaning: Thus the Field, the Knowledge and the Knowable have briefly been described. Knowing this, My devotee attains My Being.
Lesson: The Supreme is Transcendent and Immanent (One and the same in all). Inconceivable, He can be realized only inwardly
Being existed separately in different beings, the Indivisible- Supreme appears to be divided and dissimilar. He is One- without- a- second. All are derived from Him. He is the creator, sustainer and destroyer of all.
The Self-Embodied is like the Ever-Shining-Light which illumines even the darkness (the world of perception).He is the knowledge, object of knowledge and knowable through knowledge alone.
He achieves the Supreme-Goal who strives to know the Body, the Self –within and the Knowledge of the Self.

Subject: Matter and Self-Embodied
प्रकृतिं पुरुषं चैव विद्यनादि उभावपि।
विकारांश्च गुणांश्चैव विद्धि प्रकृतिसंभवान्॥१३-२०॥
prakṛtiṁ puruṣaṁ caiva vidyanādi ubhāvapi|
vikārāṁśca guṇāṁścaiva viddhi prakṛtisaṁbhavān||13-20||
Meaning: Know that the Nature (the Field or physical elements) and the Self-within (the Knower-of—the-Field: ) are both beginningless; and also know that the former or modifications and the constituent qualities are born of Nature (the Field)
कार्यकारणकर्तृत्वे हेतुः प्रकृतिरुच्यते।
पुरुषः सुखदुःखानां भोक्तृत्वे हेतुरुच्यते॥१३-२१॥
kāryakāraṇakartṛtve hetuḥ prakṛtirucyate|
puruṣaḥ sukhaduḥkhānāṁ bhoktṛtve heturucyate||13-21||
Meaning: (In the process of the cause and effect,) The Nature (physical elements) is said to be the cause (of action) and the Self-Embodied is said to be the cause in regard to the experience of pleasure and pain.
Subject; Attachment to Constituent Qualities
पुरुषः प्रकृतिस्थो हि भुङ्क्ते प्रकृतिजान्गुणान्।
कारणं गुणसङ्गोऽस्य सदसद्योनिजन्मसु॥१३-२२॥
puruṣaḥ prakṛtistho hi bhuṅkte prakṛtijānguṇān|
kāraṇaṁ guṇasaṅgo’sya sadasadyonijanmasu||13-22||
Meaning: Established in the Nature, the Self-Embodied experiences the constituent qualities of Nature. Attachment to these qualities is the cause of (ones’) birth in good or evil wombs.
Lesson: The Nature and the Self-Embodied are beginning less. All modifications and the constituent qualities originate from the Nature (physical elements). All activities are subject to cause and effect. While the Nature is the cause of the actions of the body, the senses and the Self-Embodied are the cause of experiences. The latter experiences bodily sensations caused by the three-fold constituent qualities. Ones attachment to these qualities causes him worldly miseries of birth and death.

Subject: Characteristics of the Soul
उपद्रष्टानुमन्ता च भर्ता भोक्ता महेश्वरः।
परमात्मेति चाप्युक्तो देहेऽस्मिन्पुरुषः परः॥१३-२३॥
upadraṣṭānumantā ca bhartā bhoktā maheśvaraḥ|
paramātmeti cāpyukto dehe’sminpuruṣaḥ paraḥ||13-23||
Meaning: Dwelling in this body, the Self-Embodied is beyond the body. He is said to be the Viewer, the Permitter, the Supporter, the Experiencer, the Great Lord and the Supreme.
य एवं वेत्ति पुरुषं प्रकृतिं च गुणैः सह।
सर्वथा वर्तमानोऽपि न स भूयोऽभिजायते॥१३-२४॥
ya evaṁ vetti puruṣaṁ prakṛtiṁ ca guṇaiḥ saha|
sarvathā vartamāno’pi na sa bhūyo’bhijāyate||13-24||
Meaning: He is not reborn, in whatever way he acts, who (thus) knows the Self-Embodied and the Nature (physical world) together with the(role of) constituent qualities.
Lesson: The Self-Embodied is above the physical world. It is said to be a Viewer as it witnesses; a permitter as it gives good counseling; a supporter as it sustains; an experiencer as it pulsates senses and feels sensation. Being the master of the body, it is the Great Lord, master of all.
For getting liberation from the cycle of births and deaths try to acquire true knowledge of the Self-Embodied, the physical world and the Constituent Qualities.

Subject: Knowledge of the Self
ध्यानेनात्मनि पश्यन्ति केचिदात्मानमात्मना।
अन्ये साङ्ख्येन योगेन कर्मयोगेन चापरे॥१३-२५॥
dhyānenātmani paśyanti kecidātmānamātmanā|
anye sāṅkhyena yogena karmayogena cāpare||13-25||
Meaning: Some by meditation perceive the Self in the Self by the Self; others by the Yoga (path of knowledge) and still others by action (karma yoga).
अन्ये त्वेवमजानन्तः श्रुत्वान्येभ्य उपासते।
तेऽपि चातितरन्त्येव मृत्युं श्रुतिपरायणाः॥१३-२६॥
anye tvevamajānantaḥ śrutvānyebhya upāsate|
te’pi cātitarantyeva mṛtyuṁ śrutiparāyaṇāḥ||13-26||
Meaning: Yet others, not knowing this (these three paths), hearing from others, start worshiping. They too transcend death, if they devotedly follow as their Supreme Goal what they have heard.
Lesson: There are three pathways of Self-realization namely; meditation, pursuit of knowledge and action. The fourth path is devotion to what is told by the wise. All the pathways lead to one and the same destination.

Subject: Birth of All Beings
यावत्संजायते किंचित्सत्त्वं स्थावरजङ्गमम्।
क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञसंयोगात्तद्विद्धि भरतर्षभ॥१३-२७॥
yāvatsaṁjāyate kiṁcitsattvaṁ sthāvarajaṅgamam|
kṣetrakṣetrajñasaṁyogāttadviddhi bharatarṣabha||13-27||
Meaning: Whatever moving or unmoving being is born,  O Best of the Bharat Dynasty , know that it is through the union of the Field (physical elements) and the Knower –of-the-Field (Self or the Supreme- Consciousness).
समं सर्वेषु भूतेषु तिष्ठन्तं परमेश्वरम्
विनश्यत्स्वविनश्यन्तं यः पश्यति स पश्यति॥१३-२८॥
samaṁ sarveṣu bhūteṣu tiṣṭhantaṁ parameśvaram
vinaśyatsvavinaśyantaṁ yaḥ paśyati sa paśyati||13-28||
Meaning: He sees who sees with even- mind, the Supreme- Imperishable abiding in all the perishable beings;
समं पश्यन्हि सर्वत्र समवस्थितमीश्वरम्।
न हिनस्त्यात्मनात्मानं ततो याति परां गतिम्॥१३-२९॥
samaṁ paśyanhi sarvatra samavasthitamīśvaram|
na hinastyātmanātmānaṁ tato yāti parāṁ gatim||13-29||
Meaning: For he sees the same Supreme- Self every where abiding in every living being, does not destroy his true Self by the Self .Verily, he achieves the Supreme position.
Lesson: All beings, whether movable or immovable, are born through the union of physical elements (matter) and the Self or the supreme- consciousness
He achieves the supreme position who knows this and beholds, with even mind, the Imperishable- Supreme abiding in all beings.

Subject: The Viewer
प्रकृत्यैव च कर्माणि क्रियमाणानि सर्वशः।
यः पश्यति तथात्मानमकर्तारं स पश्यति॥१३-३०॥
prakṛtyaiva ca karmāṇi kriyamāṇāni sarvaśaḥ|
yaḥ paśyati tathātmānamakartāraṁ sa paśyati||13-30||
Meaning: He verily sees who sees that all actions are performed by Nature (physical world or the gross-body) and that the Self is not the `Doer` or Performer.
Subject: Supreme Knowledge
यदा भूतपृथग्भावमेकस्थमनुपश्यति।
तत एव च विस्तारं ब्रह्म संपद्यते तदा॥१३-३१॥
yadā bhūtapṛthagbhāvamekasthamanupaśyati|
tata eva ca vistāraṁ brahma saṁpadyate tadā||13-31||
Meaning: He than attains Brahman (the Supreme) when he sees that the manifold forms of beings are establishing in the ONE and from that ONE alone spreading forth.
Lesson: The Self-indwelling is only a Viewer, a witness and a Non-Doer. All actions are performed by nature (the physical or gross- body).The mind and the intellect are affected by actions, not the Self-indwelling.
The Supreme ONE alone abides in manifold state of beings. They all develop from Him. This is (known as) the Supreme- Knowledge.

Subject: Nature of the Self
अनादित्वान्निर्गुणत्वात्परमात्मायमव्ययः।
शरीरस्थोऽपि कौन्तेय न करोति न लिप्यते॥१३-३२॥
anāditvānnirguṇatvātparamātmāyamavyayaḥ|
śarīrastho’pi kaunteya na karoti na lipyate||13-32||
Meaning: Being without beginning and being beyond the constituent qualities, O Son of Kunti, this Imperishable Self-Embodied neither acts, nor it is contaminated, though living in the body.
यथा सर्वगतं सौक्ष्म्यादाकाशं नोपलिप्यते।
सर्वत्रावस्थितो देहे तथात्मा नोपलिप्यते॥१३-३३॥
yathā sarvagataṁ saukṣmyādākāśaṁ nopalipyate|
sarvatrāvasthito dehe tathātmā nopalipyate||13-33||
Meaning: As the all- pervading sky is not contaminated because of its subtlety, similarly the Self-Embodied, is also not contaminated or tainted, (though) present everywhere in the body
यथा प्रकाशयत्येकः कृत्स्नं लोकमिमं रविः।
क्षेत्रं क्षेत्री तथा कृत्स्नं प्रकाशयति भारत॥१३-३४॥
yathā prakāśayatyekaḥ kṛtsnaṁ lokamimaṁ raviḥ|
kṣetraṁ kṣetrī tathā kṛtsnaṁ prakāśayati bhārata||13-34||
Meaning: As the one sun illumines this entire world so also, O Bharata, the Lord of the Field (the Self-Embodied) illumines this entire Field (physical body).
Lesson: Though living in the entire (physical) body, the Imperishable- Self-Embodied remains unaffected from the affects of the body. It neither acts, nor it is contaminated because it is beginningless and beyond the triple-fold- constituent- qualities.
The body gets all energy, light and vibration from the Self-Embodied. He alone is its existence.

Subject: The Body, the Self-Embodied and Liberation
क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञयोरेवमन्तरं ज्ञानचक्षुषा।
भूतप्रकृतिमोक्षं च ये विदुर्यान्ति ते परम्॥१३-३५॥
kṣetrakṣetrajñayorevamantaraṁ jñānacakṣuṣā|
bhūtaprakṛtimokṣaṁ ca ye viduryānti te param||13-35||
Meaning: They get Self- realization (attain Brahman; the Supreme) who perceive with their eye- of- wisdom the difference between the Field and the Knower-of-the-Field as also the liberation of beings from prakriti (nature or the material world).
Lesson: For Self-realization try to understand the difference between the Gross-Body and the Self-Embodied. Also try to know as how beings are liberated from the material existence.

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द्वादशोऽध्यायः — भक्ति योगः

अर्जुन उवाच।
arjuna uvāca|
Arjuna said:

Subject: The Best Knower of Yoga
एवं सततयुक्ता ये भक्तास्त्वां पर्युपासते।
ये चाप्यक्षरमव्यक्तं तेषां के योगवित्तमाः॥१२-१॥
evaṁ satatayuktā ye bhaktāstvāṁ paryupāsate|
ye cāpyakṣaramavyaktaṁ teṣāṁ ke yogavittamāḥ||12-1||
Meaning: Who among the two is the best knower of yoga? The one who persistently worships Your this (human) form and the other who worships You as Imperishable and Unmanifested.
Lesson: There are two types of devotees who seek oneness with the Absolute (1)Devoted to the manifested form of the Supreme-Being in the manifested world (His Sagun Roop),(2)Ever engaged in the meditation of the Unmanifested (His Nirgun- Roop) ,having detached from the manifested world of physical elements.)

श्रीभगवानुवाच।
śrībhagavānuvāca|
Lord Krishna said:
Subject: The Best Yogi
मय्यावेश्य मनो ये मां नित्ययुक्ता उपासते।
श्रद्धया परयोपेताः ते मे युक्ततमा मताः॥१२-२॥
mayyāveśya mano ye māṁ nityayuktā upāsate|
śraddhayā parayopetāḥ te me yuktatamā matāḥ||12-2||
Meaning: I consider them best among all the yogis who worship My manifested Form with single-minded devotion and supreme faith.
ये त्वक्षरमनिर्देश्यं अव्यक्तं पर्युपासते।
सर्वत्रगमचिंत्यंच कूटस्थं अचलंध्रुवम्॥१२-३॥
ye tvakṣaramanirdeśyaṁ avyaktaṁ paryupāsate|
sarvatragamaciṁtyaṁca kūṭasthaṁ acalaṁdhruvam||12-3||
Meaning: (But) those who worship the Imperishable, the Indefinable, the Unmanifested, the Omnipresent, the Immovable and the Unconceivable;
संनियम्येन्द्रियग्रामं सर्वत्र समबुद्धयाः।
ते प्राप्नुवन्ति मामेव सर्वभूतहिते रताः॥१२-४॥
saṁniyamyendriyagrāmaṁ sarvatra samabuddhayāḥ|
te prāpnuvanti māmeva sarvabhūtahite ratāḥ||12-4||
Meaning: Having controlled all their senses, being even minded every where, rejoicing ever in the welfare of all creatures, indeed come to Me.
Lesson: The best among the Yogis is he who worships the manifested – form of the Supreme with single minded devotion and complete faith. But, he who is ever engaged in the meditation of the Unmanifested, having restrained his senses and fully absorbed in the welfare of all beings, attains the Supreme-Being.
(He alone is most successful who performs his duty with faith and single minded devotion for the welfare of all beings).

Subject: Difficult Yoga
क्लेशोऽधिकतरस्तेषां अव्यक्तासक्तचेतसाम्॥
अव्यक्ताहि गतिर्दुःखं देहवद्भिरवाप्यते॥१२-५॥
kleśo’dhikatarasteṣāṁ avyaktāsaktacetasām||
avyaktāhi gatirduḥkhaṁ dehavadbhiravāpyate||12-5||
Meaning: Self-realization is more difficult for them whose minds are set on the Unmanifested -the Eternal-Being, as His comprehension by the embodied-being is done after great difficulty.
Lesson: Transcendental meditation (worship of the Unmanifested Supreme-Being) is more difficult for the embodied-beings than the worship of His manifested- form.

Subject: Duty and Devotion
ये तु सर्वाणि कर्माणि मयि संन्यस्य मत्परः।
अनन्येनैव योगेन मां ध्यायन्त उपासते॥१२-६॥
ye tu sarvāṇi karmāṇi mayi saṁnyasya matparaḥ|
ananyenaiva yogena māṁ dhyāyanta upāsate||12-6||
Meaning: Dedicating all (their) acts to Me, absorbed in Me who worship considering Me as their Supreme goal with single-minded devotion;
तेषामहं समुद्धर्ता मृत्युसंसारसागरात्।
भवामि न चिरात्पार्थ मय्यावेशितचेतसाम्॥१२-७॥
teṣāmahaṁ samuddhartā mṛtyusaṁsārasāgarāt|
bhavāmi na cirātpārtha mayyāveśitacetasām||12-7||
Meaning: For them whose minds are set on Me, O Partha, verily I soon become their redeemer from the ocean of the birth and death.
Lesson: Those who follow the path of devotion should: (1) Consider the worshiped as their supreme goal; (2) Be ever absorbed in His contemplation; (3) Worship Him with single-minded devotion; (4) Perform all their actions (duties) as worship to the worshiped.

Subject: Devotion
मय्येव मन आधत्स्व मयि बुद्धिं निवेशय।
निवसिष्यसि मय्येव अत ऊर्ध्वं न संशयः॥१२-८॥
mayyeva mana ādhatsva mayi buddhiṁ niveśaya|
nivasiṣyasi mayyeva ata ūrdhvaṁ na saṁśayaḥ||12-8||
Meaning: By engaging your mind and intellect in Me you will undoubtedly dwell in Me alone.
Lesson: For reaching up to the worshiped, the devotee should concentrate his mind and intellect in the worshiped.
(Concentration of mind and intellect is necessary for attainment of your goal with excellence)

Subject: Yoga -Practice
अथचित्तं समाधातुं न शक्नोषि मयि स्थिरम्।
अभ्यासयोगेन ततो मामिच्छाप्तुं धनंजय॥१२-९॥
athacittaṁ samādhātuṁ na śaknoṣi mayi sthiram|
abhyāsayogena tato māmicchāptuṁ dhanaṁjaya||12-9||
Meaning: If you can not establish your mind steadily in Me, then O Dhananjaya, strive to attain Me through constant practice. (of the Yoga of meditation).
Lesson: Those who fail to concentrate their mind and intellect in their worshiped, should have a steady practice of the yoga of meditation.
(Concentration of mind and intellect requires steady practice).

Subject: Perfection by Action
अभ्यासेऽप्यसमर्थोऽसि मत्कर्मपरमो भव।
मदर्थमपि कर्माणि कुर्वन्सिद्धिमवाप्स्यसि॥१२-१०॥
abhyāse’pyasamartho’si matkarmaparamo bhava|
madarthamapi karmāṇi kurvansiddhimavāpsyasi||12-10||
Meaning: Be engaged in action (perform your duty) for my sake, aiming as My service, if you are unable to practice yoga of steady meditation. Even by performing duty, for My sake, you shall attain perfection.
Lesson: The devotee who is unable to practice the yoga of meditation should perform actions (accomplish his duties) as if he is working for the worshiped?doing the job of the worshiped.

Subject: Desireless Action
अथैतदप्यशक्तोऽसि कर्तुं मद्योगमाश्रितः।
सर्वकर्मफलत्यागं ततः कुरु यतात्मवान्॥१२-११॥
athaitadapyaśakto’si kartuṁ madyogamāśritaḥ|
sarvakarmaphalatyāgaṁ tataḥ kuru yatātmavān||12-11||
Meaning: If you are unable to practice even this (practice of meditation), then with subdued mind (free from anxieties), taking refuge in My service (field of action), renounce the fruits- of- all ?actions (detachment to actions).
श्रेयो हि ज्ञानमभ्यासाज्ज्ञानाद्ध्यानं विशिष्यते।
ध्यानात्कर्मफलत्यागस्त्यागाच्छांतिरनन्तरम्॥१२-१२॥
śreyo hi jñānamabhyāsājjñānāddhyānaṁ viśiṣyate|
dhyānātkarmaphalatyāgastyāgācchāṁtiranantaram||12-12||
Meaning: Better indeed is knowledge than (ritualistic)
practices; better is meditation than knowledge ( study of scriptures); renunciation (of fruits- of – actions) is even better than meditation (because) peace (inner- tranquility) immediately follows renunciation.
Lesson: With subdued mind, perform your duty, having renounced attachments to results, (as a service to the worshipped), if you are unable to perform transcendental pursuit. Renunciation (of the fruits of action) is better than ritualistic acts, meditation and even the study of scriptures.

Subject: Qualities of a True Devotee
अद्वेष्टा सर्वभूतानां मैत्रः करुण एव च।
निर्ममो निरहङ्कारः समदुःखसुखः क्षमी॥१२-१३॥
adveṣṭā sarvabhūtānāṁ maitraḥ karuṇa eva ca|
nirmamo nirahaṅkāraḥ samaduḥkhasukhaḥ kṣamī||12-13||
Meaning: He who does not hate any one; who is friendly and compassionate; who is free from attachment and ego, who is even-minded in pleasure and pain; forgiving;
संतुष्टः सततं योगी यतात्मा दृढनिश्चयः।
मय्यर्पितमनोबुद्धिर्यो मद्भक्तः स मे प्रियः॥१२-१४॥
saṁtuṣṭaḥ satataṁ yogī yatātmā dṛḍhaniścayaḥ|
mayyarpitamanobuddhiryo madbhaktaḥ sa me priyaḥ||12-14||
Meaning: That devotee is dear to Me who is ever satisfied, self-controlled, steady in meditation whose resolve is firm who takes refuge in Me (dedicates mind and intellect to Me);
यस्मान्नोद्विजते लोको लोकान्नोद्विजते च यः।
हर्षामर्षभयोद्वेगैर्मुक्तो यः स च मे प्रियः॥१२-१५॥
yasmānnodvijate loko lokānnodvijate ca yaḥ|
harṣāmarṣabhayodvegairmukto yaḥ sa ca me priyaḥ||12-15||
Meaning: He is dear to Me by whom none is agitated, nor is he agitated by any one, who is free from joy, envy, fear and agitation;
अनपेक्षः शुचिर्दक्ष उदासीनो गतव्यथः।
सर्वारम्भपरित्यागी यो मद्भक्तः स मे प्रियः॥१२-१६॥
anapekṣaḥ śucirdakṣa udāsīno gatavyathaḥ|
sarvārambhaparityāgī yo madbhaktaḥ sa me priyaḥ||12-16||
Meaning: Such a devotee is dear to me who is free from desires, who inwardly and out worldly, is pure, who is alert, indifferent untroubled and who has given up all initiatives (related to actions);
यो न हृष्यति न द्वेष्टि न शोचति न काङ्क्षति।
शुभाशुभपरित्यागी भक्तिमान्यः स मे प्रियः॥१२-१७॥
yo na hṛṣyati na dveṣṭi na śocati na kāṅkṣati|
śubhāśubhaparityāgī bhaktimānyaḥ sa me priyaḥ||12-17||
Meaning: That person full of devotion is dear to Me ,who neither rejoices nor grieves nor desires, who has renounced the fruits of good and evil deeds;
समः शत्रौ च मित्रे च तथा मानापमानयोः।
शीतोष्णसुखदुःखेषु समः सङ्गविवर्जितः॥१२-१८॥
samaḥ śatrau ca mitre ca tathā mānāpamānayoḥ|
śītoṣṇasukhaduḥkheṣu samaḥ saṅgavivarjitaḥ||12-18||
Meaning: He who is even-minded to friend and foe, for honour and disgrace, cold and heat, pleasure and pain and who is unattached:
तुल्यनिन्दास्तुतिर्मौनी संतुष्टो येन केनचित्।
अनिकेतः स्थिरमतिर्भक्तिमान्मे प्रियो नरः॥१२-१९॥
tulyanindāstutirmaunī saṁtuṣṭo yena kenacit|
aniketaḥ sthiramatirbhaktimānme priyo naraḥ||12-19||
Meaning: That devotee is dear to Me who is equipoised in censure and praise, who is silent (restrained in speech), contented with any thing, unattached to living conditions and who is of steady mind;
ये तु धर्म्यामृतमिदं यथोक्तं पर्युपासते।
श्रद्दधाना मत्परमा भक्तास्तेऽतीव मे प्रियाः॥१२-२०॥
ye tu dharmyāmṛtamidaṁ yathoktaṁ paryupāsate|
śraddadhānā matparamā bhaktāste’tīva me priyāḥ||12-20||
Meaning: Those devotees are exceedingly dear to Me, who endowed with faith, and holding Me as their supreme goal, follow the aforementioned immortal Dharma without attachment.
Lesson: In the above seven stanzas (shlokas), thirty six requisite qualities have been mentioned for a true devotee or a man who endeavors to excel in his mission. Enriched with these qualities he can not be trapped by the forces of attraction and hate or friendship and enimosity.With steady mind and complete devotion in his mission he attains his highest goal. These qualities include :(1) malice to none, (2) friendly, (3)compassionate, (4) free from attachment and egoism, (5)even-minded in pain and pleasure, (6)forgiveness, (7) ever contented, (8)steady in meditation, (9)self-control, (10) firm conviction/resolve, (11)mind and intellect ever focused on the supreme goal, (12)not agitated by worldly affairs, (13) does not agitate others by worldly worries, (14) completely free from the inward causes of agitation such as joy, envey, fear anxiety etc., (15)independent of the objects of the world, (16) pure, (17) alert, (18)indifferent, (19) free from inner agitation/ fear, (20) free from ego of initiating action, (21) no rejoice, (22) no hatred, (23)no grieve, (24)desireless, (25)no attachment to the fruits of good deeds, (26)no attachment to the fruits of evil deeds, (27)treating friends and foes alike, (28) treating honour and dishonour alike, (29) treating heat and cold alike, (30)treating censure and praise alike, (31) treating pleasure and pain alike, (32) silent, (33) contented with any thing/every thing, (34)unattached to home/family or living conditions, (35) full devotion, (36)steady mind.

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